Change Management Change Is One Thing Term Paper

Pages: 8 (2066 words)  ·  Style: APA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Business - Management

Change Management

Change is one thing, progress is another.

Change' is scientific, 'progress' is ethical; change is indubitable, whereas progress is a matter of controversy."

Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) (Columbia)

Change

While change has always constituted a concern issue in management, it currently constitutes as a vital issue. "Change is a relatively recent management topic everywhere in the world.

The number of books and articles on Change Management has increased more than 100 times since the 1960s."

As organizations try (and sometimes fail) and/or make costly and repeated mistakes to implement complex and organization-wide initiative, costs related to change failures reportedly rise. Repeated surveys routinely note change management to be at the top of the list of executive concerns. Contemporary changes may include:

reengineering, diversity awareness, globalization, quality and productivity programs, as well as complex alliances, mergers, and acquisitions.

Theories

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John Adair, previous senior lecturer at the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, and current management consultant, formulated the Three Circles Model, one theory this researcher explores. Another theory, Maslow's Theory of Staff Motivation, is also explored, along with the Blake and Mouton Theory, developed by two American consultants, Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. The theory presented in Who Moved My Cheese?, created by Dr. Spencer Johnson, however, constitutes this researcher's favorite theory.

Types of Organizational Change

In Managing Change/Changing Managers, Randall identifies the following summaries of seven theoretical approaches among various currently implemented ones utilized in change management.

Planning model

Term Paper on Change Management Change Is One Thing, Progress Assignment

The example we examined earlier in Collins is listed here and such models often include: develop the need for change; establish a relationship; clarify the problem; examine goals and alternatives; implement the change effort; stabilize the change; and terminate the relationship. We might expect a similar approach to govern the steps undertaken by an external consultancy.

Problem-solving model

The focus here is somewhat more specific, perhaps to a process or distinct element. It often includes: problem awareness; problem identification; information gathering; solution generation decision; implementation; and review. The authors acknowledge that this model is often to be found within the context of a larger model of change.

Need-satisfaction model

Need satisfaction suggests an older literature, which finds its context in the debate on motivation (McClelland, 1975). It includes: need identification; initial diagnosis and strategy; and actions. It suggests that the organizational model is organic rather than mechanical.

Growth model

Again the metaphor here is organic and in some cases the idea of plant growth and its stages are delineated: seeds; nutrients; first fruits; and preserving the grass roots (Brugliera, 1976). Structuralists might struggle to make sense of this imagery.

Ice model

Perhaps the most famous example of change models is offered here: unfreezing; moving; and refreezing (Lewin, 1947). As we have noted above, the process was rather more complex to implement than the simple terms describing it initially suggest.

Transition model

Here a six-phase model is offered: diagnosis; defining the end state; defining the transition state; change strategies; evaluation; and stabilization (Beckhard and Harris, 1977). Put more simply, that might be rendered as: where are we; where do we want to be; and how are we going to get there? It is not dissimilar to the incremental approach to change that we saw in early chapters.

Primary activity model

Here an intervention strategy is offered. Argyris is suggested as a proponent of this model. The stages undertaken in the intervention are described as: generating valid information; allowing free, informed choice; and fostering internal commitment. These activities he envisaged as unfolding in a primary intervention cycle: diagnostic phase; choice phase; and internal commitment phase.

Bullock and Batten summarize the coincidence of each model against the seven criteria and this table can be found in the original article (1985, 396). What is more interesting, however, is the summary and overview in which they seek to identify key phases and elements within each phase which encompass the many models they have identified (see Table 6.1).

The authors then conflate all the models and demonstrate where they fit and how far they are commensurate with the phases and elements included in their outline model. This can be found in full in the original article (1985, 402-405).

II. LITERATURE NOTES

Change is indubitable [certain]...,"

Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) (Columbia)

Three Circles Model

The Three Circles Model purports that effective management of staff occurs as a team leader attaches equal importance to three fundamental factors:

the task; the team; the individuals in the team.

As noted earlier, John Adair, previous senior lecturer at the Royal Military Academy, Sandhurst, and current management consultant, formulated the Three Circles Model. Adair regularly uses the Three Circles Model approach, also known as "Action-Centred Leadership" (ACL), depicted in the following figure (1), in management training programs.

Figure 1: Three Circles Model

The following table (1) relates actions utilized in each "circle" related by the Three Circles Model.

Table 1: Checklist Identifying Key Stage Actions to Achieve Management Objectives

Key stages

Task

Team

Individual

Define objectives

Identify task and constraints

Involve the team, share commitment

Clarify objectives, gain acceptance

Plan

Establish priorities, check resources, decide, set standards

Consult, encourage ideas and actions, develop suggestions structure

Assess skills, set targets, delegate, persuade

Brief

Brief the team, check understanding

Answer questions, obtain feedback

Listen, enthuse

Support, monitor

Report progress, maintain standards, discipline

Coordinate, reconcile conflict

Advise, assist / reassure, recognize effort, counsel

Evaluate

Summarize progress, review objectives, re-plan if necessary

Recognize success, learn from failure

Assess performance, appraise, guide and train

Maslow's "Staircase Model of Motivation"

Regarding the relevancy of Maslow's theory of staff motivation, Maslow warns managers, 'We have spoken so far as if this hierarchy were a fixed order but actually it is not nearly as rigid as we may have implied" (Maslow 1943:46). In this theory, should not be taken as a "fixed order of not to take the hierarchy of needs as a fixed order of successive Managers responsible to motivate staff report they routinely have to address two major concerns which regularly arise:

How to effectively create and sustain the will to work in staff;

How to effectively share their will to work.

The following figure (3) denotes Maslow's theory of staff motivation portrayed in staircase fashion.

Figure 2: Maslow's "Staircase Model of Motivation" (Dunham, 1995, p. 38 reformatted by Writing Matters, 2008)

The Blake and Mouton theory, published in a number of books, developed by two American consultants, Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, is also presented in numerous management training workshops. This theory contends every manager should focus on two primary concerns:

Achieving results

People

The following table (2) relates actions utilized in the Blake and Mouton Managerial theory.

Table 2: Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid

The next table (3) explains rating system for the previous Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid.

Table 3: Rating system for the Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid.

Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done.

Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable friendly organisation atmosphere and work tempo.

Is extremely task orientated. Doesn't concern him/herself about other people's feelings.

Adequate team performance and attitudes to work maintained at satisfactory level. Conscientious rather than creative or innovative.

Work accomplishment is from committed people who have respect and trust. Involves staff in decisions which affect them. Helps team to identify objectives and achieve them.

Managers Need to Managers need to "communicate with and not to people."

To help decrease incidents of rumors spreading during change, managers need to ensure others clearly understand one what is happening. This also helps keep expectations real. Managers also need to relate benefits and focus on realizing them. Benefits of change have to be clear to staff. Managers and staff can focus on how to best realize expected benefits. When benefits are blurred, people will not generally support the change. They may even find ways to sabotage and/or work against changes. In addition, managers need to reflect on and review employment terms and conditions as the terms of their employment, along with motivated many individuals. Terms may include their decision-making responsibility, the breadth of their role, as well as, authority.

Moreover, managers need to consider what effect any program change program will be have on personnel policy, procedures and rewards. Finally, as it is usually common for "change agents" to be at the center of any program change, managers need to ensure these key individuals are open-minded colleagues, ready and able to respond to necessary, positive changes.

When the Cheese Gets Moved

In the Who Moved My Cheese?, created by Dr. Spencer Johnson, Johnson states this story helped him more effectively deal with a difficult change in his life. It also taught him how to take a changing situation seriously without taking himself so seriously.

The story line for this light-hearted, yet relevant book related to change management follows four characters, Sniff, Scurry, Hem and Haw, and mirrors their experiences as they journey through the maze in search of "New Cheese." Practical solutions to help people succeed at organizational change in three simple stages are presented… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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