# Chemistry Pre-LabsLab Report

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Measurement and Density Determination

Measurement is a critical tool that must be applied in an experimental science such as chemistry. The values are measured using the metric system, a common standard among scientists of the world, with the basic units being measured in multiples of ten. The basic units are different for each type of measurement; mass is measured in grams, distance in meters, temperature in degrees, and density in mass per volume (grams per liter). In each case the equations and measurement needs to have a corresponding unit associated with it or the measurement loses its meaning. In addition to this, the measurement precision and significant figures need to be careful considered. A measurement should be made to the number of decimal places specified and any equations should use conversion factors and mathematical operators, but the final result when applying these equations should be with the correct number of significant figures which can be no more than the least precise value.

Purpose

The purpose of this experiment is to determine how to measure various parameters using the metric system. These parameters include mass, temperature, density and pH and various equations and conversion equations need to be understood.

Pre-lab Assignment

None required.

Procedures

1. Place a weighing paper on a top-loading balance and record the weight in your notebook.

2. Place 7-8 pieces of aluminum shot on pre-weighed paper and record the new weight.pl

3. Place another weighing paper on the balance, measure, and then remeasure with and 4.0 grams of sodium chloride.

4. Record the number of the unknown liquid in your notebook, place the graduated cylinder on the balance and measure its weight, then add 7 to 8 mL of the unknown liquid and record its weight and total volume.

5. Wash the ten mL graduated cylinder and fill it with 5 to 6 mL of deionized water and measure, and record the volume and weight in your notebook.

6. Place the aluminum shot measured previously and record the new volume.

7. Fill a 250 mL beaker one-third full of water and read the temperature with a thermometer.

8. Fill a 100 mL beaker with crushed ice and add it to the water and remeasure the temperature at the bottom of the beaker without stirring.

9. Add sodium chloride from step 3 and measure the temperature after stirring for 1 minute.

10. Add 4.0 mL of solution a into a 10 mL beaker and put a strip of pH paper in the solution.

11. Add 4.0 mL of solution B. In another 10 mL beaker and repeat the pH measurement.

12. Pour solution a into solution B. And repeat the pH measurement.

February 17, 2012

Up in Smoke

Introduction

Due to the recent admission of cigarette companies that cigarettes are dangerous and significantly increase the risk of lung cancer to smokers, laws have been enacted by banning smoking in public places. This so-called environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is of concern to the population because it has been determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that of the over 4,000 chemical compounds in ETS, there are over 40 that are known carcinogens and can cause cancer in humans. Nicotine in the tobacco is dangerous because it is a stimulant that is highly addictive and causes significant hardening of the artery walls as it is smoked. Not only are the effects of smoking dangerous on the smoker, but second-hand smoke is also considered a carcinogen. The act of smoking exposes the smoker with a portion of these chemicals with the rest being expelled into the air.

Purpose

The purpose of this experiment is to examine and determine the amount of solids that are present in cigarette smoke. The analysis will include what is produced from first-hand and second-hand smoke as well as the effect of the cigarette's filter and a couple of different types of cigarettes.

Pre-lab Assignment

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Chemistry Pre-Labs.  (2012, February 17).  Retrieved January 27, 2020, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/chemistry-pre-labs/6343954

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"Chemistry Pre-Labs."  Essaytown.com.  February 17, 2012.  Accessed January 27, 2020.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/chemistry-pre-labs/6343954.