Child Development the First Two Term Paper

Pages: 3 (1277 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Children

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
Freud's suggested that there are five psychosexual stages of development. Firstly the oral stage, which occurs from birth to about one year, is when the infant is orally oriented and everything the child touches is put into the mouth. According to Freud, this occurs not only for feeding purposes, but also for pleasure, and the gratification is sexual. Freud's second takes place between the ages of two and three years of age, when the erogenous zone shifts to the anal region. Freud believes children experience sexual gratification during bowel movements and when they withhold bowel movements. Following the Anal stage of development, and usually at around the age of three, the individual enters the Phallic Stage during which the child gains gratification from their sexual organs. The child notices differences and similarities between themselves and their parents and each sex wants to be with the parent of the other sex: for males this is known as the Oedipus complex and for girls this is referred to as the Elektra complex. Once the children realize they can not be with their mother or father, they identify with the parent of the same sex. Next is the Latency stage, characterized by a lack of change, and is a time of relative calm for the individual. The last stage of Freud's psychosexual development is the Genital Stage and, from puberty into adulthood, sexual desire and sexual relationships develop and mature.Get full Download Microsoft Word File access
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Term Paper on Child Development the First Two Assignment

Erikson took Freud's ideas and enhanced them, mainly by adding stages for the adult years, but also by emphasizing identity rather than sexuality. Erikson developed the eight psychosocial stages of development, the first of which occurs during infancy. This stage deals with trust vs. mistrust, and is when the child perceives whether the world can be trusted or not, and develops a trusting relationship with parents. The second stage, during early childhood, is known as autonomy vs. shame and doubt, and is when the child develops personal autonomy. This stage is important in determining whether or not a child develops a sense of self-certainty. Between the ages of three to six years, Erikson's third stage, that of initiative vs. guilt takes place. The individual develops initiative by the process of trial and error, and is important in developing the sense of enterprise. The fourth stage takes place around six years of age and lasts until puberty. This stage deals with industry vs. inferiority and is when the child learns skills of the culture and must deal with feelings of inferiority. Adolescence heralds the fifth stage, known as identity vs. identity confusion. It is during this stage that Erikson believes adolescents develop their sense of self and identity. The sixth stage for Erikson is known for intimacy vs. isolation and takes during young adulthood. This is when the individual seeks commitments from others, which if unsuccessful, may lead to isolation. The penultimate stage takes place during adulthood and is known as generativity vs. stagnation. The adult is concerned with guiding the next generation and provides the adult with a sense of caring. Erikson's final stage involved old age, and is marked by integrity vs. despair. This is when the individual may achieve a sense of acceptance of their own life, which in turn assists in the acceptance of death. Both Freud's and Erikson's theories, despite attracting supporters and critics, remain highly influential within the discipline of psychology. The theories possess similarities, in regard to their chronology and their approach to human development as a sequence, or stages, of events. The most obvious and fundamental difference lies in their focus: Freud emphasizing the sexual basis of development, and Erikson focusing on the self and social orientation. [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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