Research Proposal: China the Political System

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China

The Political System of China

The fundamental law in China is the Constitutional System (China Guide 2009). Its present Constitution was adopted by the Fifth National People's Congress on December 4, 1982. The National People's Congress or NPC is the highest state authority, China's fundamental political system. On the other hand, local authorities head local people's congresses. The people elect both state and local authorities. China's central administrative system consists of central administrative organs under the National People's Congress and central administrative organs controlling local administrative organs. The State Council of the People's Republic of China is the central administrative organ and the highest administrative organ of state. Meanwhile, the local administrative system sets up and controls administrative regional divisions and local administrative organs. The Party in Power in China is the Communist Party, in fact, the only power in the People's Republic of China. It was founded in 1921 and established the People's Republic of China in 1949. There are eight other political parties, which can participate in state affairs but under the leadership and supervision of CPC. China's political system consists of a chief executive, administrative organs, a legislative council, and judicial organs China Guide).

The head of state is the President of the People's Republic of China. He serves for five years and not more than two consecutive terms (China Guide 2009). He asserts domestic powers and handles the political affairs of the state. Under him are the civil servants who hold power in state administrative organs. They implement laws and administer public services. Citizens not only vote but also oversee the election procedures, direct and indirect election, election expenditures and penalties for violations. Thickly populated areas are dominated by ethnic minorities. They are self-governed or autonomous but still come under the national leadership. Autonomous provinces are equal to provinces, autonomous prefectures to prefectual-level cities, and autonomous counties to counties. When warranted, the National People's Congress enacts laws to establish special administrative regions (China Guide).

American Political System

The Declaration of Independence of 1776 and the Constitution of 1789 are the foundations of the American political system (Darlington 2009). The Declaration of Independence establishes the United States as an independent political entity. The Constitution provides the basic structure of the federal government. The Constitution is a very stable document, which is quite difficult to change. In more than two centuries, there have been only 17 amendments. Amendments require two-thirds vote of both houses and ae to ratify them. Central to the Constitution is the separation of powers. The three branches of government or institutions share power. These are the executive, the legislative and judicial branches. Not one branch has a monopoly of power under the principle of checks and balances. Each has some authority to act on its own and regulate the other two. The other two have the same powers and the authority to regulate the third branch (Darlington).

Power is not only spread and balanced among the three branches. The Constitution also limits the terms of office to control excesses (Darlington 2009). The President has only four years. The members of the Senate have six-year terms while the members of the House of Representatives have two years. Members of the Supreme Court are duty-bound to serve effectively for life. The intention of the founding fathers who drafted the Constitution was to create a much more democratic political system that the monarchy of Britain. Its great weakness, on the other hand, is a slow, complicated and legalistic bureaucracy (Darlington).

The dominant political parties in the U.S. are the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, which date back to 11824 and 1854, respectively (Darlington 2009). Political parties in the U.S. are weaker than those in other democracies. They are not too active between election periods. And during elections, they are not too influential in campaigning. Elections cost much more in the U.S. than in other democracies. The number of candidates is thus limited. The influence of corporations and pressure groups increases and influences the result of the election. Voters register to support one major party and then vote in primary elections. Their vote selects the party's candidate in the "real" election. American political elections are characterized by low voter turnout and the importance of incumbency. The only exception was the 2008 election of Barack Obama, which garnered 63% turnout, the highest since that of John F. Kennedy in 1960 (Darlington).

The Constitution limits the powers of the federal government and vests a lot on individual sates (Darlington 2009). Every state has its own executive, legislature and judiciary. A governor is the head of each state who is directly elected. The legislature consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives, while the judiciary has a state system of courts. Each of the 50 states is divided into counties. Each county has a court. Local governments determine the dates and times of state and local elections. Debate continues as to whether the federal government should assume a stronger role or that stronger power should remain more in the local governments. But fundamental changes have been evident since the last century, especially since the end of the Second World War. The first is the shift in the balance of power between Congress and the President. It moved towards the President, as can be gleaned from congressional allocations to purposes chosen by the President and the refusal to invoke war despite major military invasions. Others describe the President as "the unitary executive" and "the imperial President." A second is the uncontrolled increase in the funding of political campaigns and of political lobbying. Private finance from big businesses controls the scene. This leads some observers to think that the American political system has become a plutocracy. These businesses strongly influence the creation of policies and practices by candidates they finance. A third is an increase in pork barrel politics through earmarks. And the changing nature of political debate to one more partisan, tribal and polarized. If the politics of most European countries is consensual, that of America has focused more on the demands of a political "base" rather than drawn from the national consensus (Darlington).

The U.S. is said to be a divided democracy (Darlington 2009). Through the separation of powers, its three branches of government are very distinct in terms of power and personalities. Its federal system of government is politically divided by the sharp differences of views in many social issues. Its lack of a clear ideological division between the two major parties created the notion of American exceptionalism. The notion allows America to be vastly different from other democracies. It also means that America is superior to these democracies and other nations for its history, size, wealth and dominance in the world. In an extreme case, it implies that America has been particularly chosen and blessed by God for its "manifest destiny (Darlington)."

Capitalism in China

China has been confined to a thousand-year-old bureaucracy, which always stifled and resisted the emergence of capitalism (Hutchet 2006). That bureaucracy insured longevity and territorial integrity through an authoritarian and predatory stance. But an overwhelming change began occurring since the launching of the economic reform program in 1978. The last three decades became an intense period of economic change never seen in the country since the Opium War of 1842. China was being transformed into a capital system. At this time, the process has penetrated and appears irreversible, although many obstacles and contradictions still exist in the economic system. Among these are the pension and banking system, the governance of state-owned businesses, social inequalities, and environmental degradation (Hutchet).

Capitalism turned out to be the only alternative for the CCP to remain in power (Hutchet 2006). The Party has used capitalism successfully. It perpetuates the Party's dictatorship and offers the different sectors of society minimum political crutch. It assures personal enrichment and the development of economic power, which happens to correspond to the nationalistic aspirations of the elite and the population. Unlike other authoritarian regimes, China opened its door wide to foreign investors. These foreign investors have taken advantage of the social inequalities in China to enhance their networks of international production. The opening up of Chinese economy still does not jibe with the strategies used by the economies in Europe, the U.S., Japan and South Korea at their same stage of development as China's (Hutchet).

The Influence of Imperialism and Colonialism on 21st Century China

World statistics list China as the third biggest trading country with approximately $200 billion trade deficit to the U.S. alone (Shekarabi & Rabii 2007). Its foreign investments corporations in 2001 produced almost half of China's exports. Joining the World Trade Organization or WTO that year required China to abide by world trade rules, perceived by CPP officials as a violation of the sovereignty of China. It was admitted to the WTO that year but not by a unanimous vote. Since that year, Chinese markets, goods and services have been subjects of debate and discussion, which border… [END OF PREVIEW]

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https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/china-political-system/3369327.