Term Paper: Classroom Management, and Organization Plan

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[. . .] Gardner gives proof of this by giving example of the high spatial abilities of the Puluwat people of the Caroline Islands, who use these skills to navigate their canoes in the ocean. He also suggested the example of the Japanese society where balance of personal intelligences is required. Gardner further recommended that for learning individuals should be encouraged to use their preferred intelligences. Along with that instructional activities should be such as one, which would appeal to different levels of intelligence. As a result it is essential to assess learning should measure multiple levels of intelligence. Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences is in a position to understand the varying abilities and talents of students. It provides a theoretical foundation for the understanding. The theory provides the understanding that students who may not be interested in some areas, they may have interest in other areas of learning. The teacher should be in a position to understand the areas of interest of the student. If this is being followed learning can be interesting and students would be in a position to participate in classroom learning successfully. (Gardner, 1993)

Teachers while dealing with students from various backgrounds must deal with the students individual learning styles and be in a position to communicate positively with the students. It is also essential to establish appropriate climate in a classroom where students would like to learn. The teachers should involve students in making important decisions with regard to their own learning, thereby personalizing the method of learning for each student. Teachers should also provide learning activities adapted to the skills of each individual student. It is also essential to teach by using a variety of strategies and techniques which emphasize on cooperative learning and which discourage competitive learning. At the same time, the educators should hold and maintain high expectations for each student. Thus in order to promote equality in the classroom, it is essential that cultural or ethnic diversity and the diversity of learning styles need to be addressed by educators.

In order to reduce the task of strengthening classroom practice some exciting innovations have been made in student assessment. Various kinds of assessment techniques of performance have emerged in recent years. They include classroom and state assessments which indulge students in applying their skills and knowledge to challenges of the real world and simulations. The assessment techniques also involves student portfolios. These techniques provide a better complete understanding of the current achievements and the learning styles appropriate for each student. The performance assessments also enable to have an understanding of the advantages which students from diverse backgrounds bring to real-world concerns. Thus understanding and promoting the various needs of students is an important responsibility of all teachers. Learning for students can be promoted and made interesting when the activity is done creatively and students are involved in the activity.

Cognitive and moral developments are essential for the development of children. Another theorist Kohlberg gave prominence to moral development. According to Kohlberg, during the stages of moral development, the child would be responsive to cultural rules. The child would be concerned of good and bad, right or wrong. The child would be responsive of the good and the bad by way of either the physical consequences of action, which may include punishment, reward, and exchange of favors or the physical power of those who exercise the rules. According to the theorist from one's own thinking and understanding of moral problems the stages emerge. By stimulating one's mental processes development takes place. When we engage in debates and discussions with others, our views would be challenged and questioned. As a result what happens is that one gets motivated to come up with new and argumentative positions. The new stages which would be those, which about these developed viewpoints. When children involve in interactions with others, they happen to learn and understand others viewpoints. They understand that their viewpoints differ from others and learn how to coordinate their viewpoints and engage in activities involving cooperation. When students discuss with others and work out their differences, they would be in a position to be able to develop their notions of what is just and fair. According to Kohlberg, interactions would work out best, when they tend to be open and democratic. Children would settle their own differences and would formulate their own ideas when they would feel free in an atmosphere of freedom. (Kohlberg; Turiel, 1971)

After observing and testing of children and of adults, Kohlberg was of the opinion that human beings would progress from one stage to the next in an invariant sequence. As a result they would not leave any stage or would go back to the last stage. Kohlberg was of the opinion that teachers could be in a position to help children reach higher stages of moral thinking. Teachers by way of discussion of moral dilemmas could do this. Individual's stage development individuals would be cognitively attracted to reasoning one level. This level would be above their dominant present level. When a child who is a student is growing it would try to seek more and more adequate ways of solving problems. If the students encounter no problems the child would not look for solutions. According to Kohlberg only about 25% of persons would progress to the sixth level. Majority would remain at the fourth level. (Kohlberg; Turiel, 1971)

Research strongly suggests the importance of involving parents and of the student's families in their educational process. This is because such a process of involving parents in the learning process of the child would influence the achievements, attitudes, and behavior of the student. This is specifically true in the case of mentally handicapped students. By increasing communication with parents, helping parents to assist their children in learning at home, and encouraging parent participation at school, a successful school-home partnership can be realized. Parents are also an important part of the team. They are the experts on their child. Thus in the learning process of mentally disabled students it is essential that parents and teachers have much to contribute to the educational process of the child. Parents and teachers along with other necessary support teams can they work together and be a powerful team in the development of mentally disabled students. (Alexander; Strain, 1978)


Froyen, L.A., & Iverson, A.M. (1999). "Schoolwide and classroom management: The reflective educator-leader" (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Marks, J.W., Van Laeys, J., Bender, W.N., & Scott, K.S. (1996, Summer). "Teachers create learning strategies: Guidelines for classroom creation. Teaching Exceptional Children."

Hannah, Mary Elizabeth, and Pliner, Susan. (1983) "Teacher Attitudes Toward Handicapped Children: A Review and Synthesis." School Psychology Review12 12-25

Alexander, Cara, and Strain, Philip S. (1978) "A Review of Educators' Attitudes Toward Handicapped Children and the Concept of Mainstreaming." Psychology in the Schools 15:390-396

Lawrence Kohlberg and Elliot Turiel, (1971) "Moral Development and Moral Education," in Gerald Lesser, ed., "Psychology and Educational Practice" Glenview, Ill.: Scott, Foresman.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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