Climate Change Impact on Nigerian Food Security Research Paper

Pages: 25 (7581 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 0  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Global Politics  ·  Written: March 23, 2019

SAMPLE EXCERPT . . .
The chapter further highlighted examples from other countries.CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION OF CLIMATE CHANGE20. Climate change is basically the range of changes in weather and climatic conditions that shift average conditions and result in more frequent and severe extreme weather conditions or happenings. Researcher Ozor (2012) came up with a simpler definition by referring to climate change as an overtime shift in regional or the global climate. Ozor also referred to climate change as the shift in the average weather conditions that takes place within a decade or within millions of years. Though true, Ozor’s definitions tend not to mention that adverse results of climate change that should also surely be part and parcel of its definition. 21. Patrick’s (2015) definition of climate change is more aptly put. He defines climate change as a long term change in weather elements including pressure, wind, precipitation, and temperature. Patrick’s view of climate change is in agreement to the now widely held definition of global warming as the change in air temperatures over a long period of time. Patrick was also of the view that climate change is the measurable increases in the average temperature of earth‘s atmosphere, oceans and landmasses. This definition is deficient in the fact that it dwelled more on the causes of climate change without taking cognizance of its impacts on food security.22. Adejuwon (2017) is of the argument that climate change is a shift in average state of the climate of a region that one can identify by examining the changes from the average conditions. According to this research climate changes often persist for decades and many more years.5 He observed that agriculture depends highly on climate because change in temperature, sunlight and water could affect food production. This definition serves the purpose of this study as it relates climate change to agriculture thus, it is adopted as a working definition for the study.CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION OF FOOD SECURITY23. Food security is not easy to define or measure because it is a very broad concept that covers the cultivation, the distribution, and the consumption of food. According to FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), food security is a situation whereby all persons have economic and physical access to safe, nutritious, and sufficient food that is enough of their dietary requirements for a health and active lifestyle.6 The food must also be preferred according to FAO. A region can be food insecure with plenty of food if the food available is not what the people there prefer culturally or religiously. Although a number of countries, especially in Africa, have policies to make themselves food secure, millions of Africans are suffering from malnutrition and hunger as of now. More are even expected to be in the same state in the coming few years because of climate. So the definition by FAO fails to examine factors such as floods, pest and droughts caused by climate change that could seriously affect food security. The 1996 World Food Summit resulted in a definition that took into account the climate change angle of food security. The summit participants defined food security and included its multiple dimensions including access to it, the factors that affect availability, its use, and food stability. 24. Okuneye (2018) has a more comprehensive definition. This researcher defines food security as making sure that there is sustainable affordability, availability, and access of sufficient quality and quantity of to meet the biological requirements of all citizens.7 At the family level, food security refers to the consumption of enough quality food to meet the needs of every individual in the household. The needs include for growth, development, health, and activity. In other words, a family can only be considered food secure, if every family member gets enough food to grow, develop, be active, and be healthy. This means that the family must be able to have enough resources to get enough food for all members. It also means that a family with enough resources may be somewhat food insecure if it does not have access to food that is healthy perhaps because of lack of adequate nutritional knowledge. Access to food for families may be also affected by some environmental impacts of climate change. This could be increase or decrease in annual rain fall, increase temperature and erosion among others. This is the definition that this study will adopt in its objective to find the link between climate change and food security. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CLIMATE CHANGE ANDFOOD SECURITY26. In the ancient times, Greek used to refer to the inclination of the sun as Klima. The Greeks used to the word Klima to describe the weather of an area based on the season. Climate change affects food security in several ways through its impact on local, regional, national, and global food production systems and livelihoods. Food security is the result of all the food system processes from production to distribution and use. Climate change would first affect the people and food systems that are already vulnerable therefore, certain livelihood groups need immediate support, but everybody is at risk. Hence, both concepts (food security and climate change) are strongly linked in multiple levels. Their relationship is of particular importance as the imbalance between world population and food production increases.8 Changes in climate have a huge effect on agricultural production systems as they affect both animal and plant health. For example, increased temperatures (resulting in more hot days), reduced rain, and unpredictable weather patterns, have negatively affected agriculture across the length and breadth of Africa. The above changes have been attributed to climate change. This is why latest reports including those by the IPCC have continued to raise the red flag of the sustainability of different agricultural practices in certain areas since it is seeming more certain that more predicted negative effects will become a reality.9 27. The consequences of climate change on food security in the country tend to be more severe for areas in Nigeria[END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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