Clinical Depression Major Depressions Term Paper

Pages: 13 (4777 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 23  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Psychology

Moreover people do not know the entire truth as to how clinical depression actually works and also to realize as to the kind of treatment required. Like lots of other diseases if the treatment for this is also given at an earlier stage then the illness is easier to get rid of and also early treatment can prevent serious recurrences.

The main causes for depression are chemical imbalances, stress, drugs, reactions to medication, and mental disorders. Most Psychiatrists felt that the reason behind mental illnesses usually is because of early-childhood encounters. But lately, psychiatrics have come to the conclusion that it is not the parents who are responsible but the brain of the individual. The concept that mental illness was caused by a disparity of chemicals in the brain erupted in the 1950s when nearly the presently used psychiatric drugs were exposed by probability to assuage the symptoms of definite mental illnesses. Taking for example, the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were initially used as a treatment for tuberculosis, but it was later realized that patients with advanced TB got very happy after consuming them and hence they started to be used as antidepressants - e.g. phenelzine.

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Even the neuroleptics were initially initiated as antihistamines but later it was realized that they serendipitously assuaged the symptoms of schizophrenia after which they started to be used for those individual - e.g. chlorpromazine. Like the chlorpromazine even the tricyclic antidepressants also have been noticed to have an analogous composition and were experimented in people who complained of schizophrenic. It came to the notice of many nurses that those individuals who ere depressed became less so and hence they started to being used in those with depression. Even Benzodiazepines was discovered by accident when it was realized that animals that it usually calmed down animals that complained of aggression and who were frightened and it also kept the Siamese fighting fish from fighting. After this they were tried on humans and it was realized that when it was used in large doses it reduces anxiety.

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The drug companies whose chemists had developed these drugs and were looking for a market financed many of the early trials of all these drugs. These drugs were at first tried out in various hospitals all over Europe in various patients who were suffering from chronic disease which were usually schizophrenia or TB. This led to various psychiatrists coming to the conclusion that if chemicals could help the people with mental condition, and then they were in some way responsible for that mental condition. After this a lot of research was conducted and a several drug companies started to try and analyze the reaction of their drugs. (Gold & Charney, 2002) It was realized that Neuroleptics blocked the dopamine receptors and this lead to the dopamine theory of schizophrenia. Also it was realized that Antidepressants also increased the monoamines, and the serotonin, and that gave rise to an increase in the serotonin theory of depression. Later it was also realized that these Benzodiazepines also bound GABA receptors like barbiturates and also provoked a lot of analogous drugs which were mostly used in severe anxiety conditions and also these drug companies also were responsible to spread the idea that mental imbalance was caused by the brain chemicals and also came up with new illness, thus making the psychiatrist easily adapt to the idea as an easier form of treatment.

This also started off a kind of transformation in the world of science and as people realized that the symptoms that they earlier thought of as psychological, actually had physical, chemical basis to them and it was what actually motivated them to further their research in that field.

The year 1963 was one that actually can be called as the age when the U.S. was in its psychopharmacological infancy stage and the LIFE magazine also started to educate the public about the concept of brain chemical imbalances. Many of the physiatrists also had started to test out the various medicines and drugs, specially the LSD and were very surprised at the way these were actually gaining reactions and also were amazed at the reaction of the individual's behavior, emotions and personality. This lead to a theory that stated that since there were such huge variations in behavior even after consumption of such a small drug which obviously affected the brain, then this would obviously mean that there were changes in the variation of behavior because of the chemicals induced in the brain chemistry. The concept that there could be some other external force, which was responsible for this, was absolutely not even considered and only the fact that the brain was responsible was kept in mind. (Tohen, 2003)

Many psychologists like B.F. Skinner have stated that scientists could and should control human behavior and also try and predict how the individual's mood or how his reaction would be in future or else this should be at least tried and maintained with the help of drugs. Psychiatrist Nathan Klien in the year 1967 who was actually an MK-Ultra participant came up with a calculation that showed as to how psychiatry actually intended at using the drug for behavior control and not for treating mental illness. Klien was actually involved in studying the various effects of psychiatry drugs on human beings and came to the realization that the present usage of drugs were pretty much moderate when compared to the number of chemicals that shall actually be available for the human body by the year 2000. By accepting the fact that human moods, motivation and emotion are actually caused by neuro-chemical state of the brain and these drugs actually just make the brains neutral condition. When we are going to stop using these and actually bring into consideration as to which kind of neuro-chemical states that we want for the people, it will bring a stop to this drug abuse.

There is a chemical balance or imbalance generating the ontology or subjective reality of ours, according to the current theory among doctors. According to this theory; the effect is total or exclusive. We get a clear explanation on the way the formation of our subjective reality takes place by way of this theory, like threading is done in the warp for weaving a fabric. According to the theory some neuro-chemical transmitters cross the synaptic space and activate the ensuing set of neurons; and as these neurons get activated, a condition of Depression, which is known in DSM-III-R as Dysthymia or Depressive Neurosis, develops in our ontology. This is a condition that can be described as a disturbance of mood that involves a depressed mood or in the case of children and adolescents; it could be an irritable mood. Low self-esteem, poor concentration or difficulty in making decisions, Insomnia or hypersomnia, low energy or fatigue, poor appetite or overeating and feeling of hopelessness are some of the symptoms associated with this type of depressed mood. (Tohen, 2003)

Based on these basic principles, the theory also says that by properly blocking the release of these transmitters or their passage across the synaptic space, the development of Depression also can be blocked. Here, as the pool of neurons, due to the neurological activity of which the depressive state is brought out, are rendered functionless and hence the Depression does not arise. But, is it possible that merely by rendering this pool of neurons functionless we can prevent the state of depression?. It is not possible, nor is it logical. For this type of an experience really something else has to take place. Neither we are sure about the scientific accuracy of the claim implied in it, nor the current fashion of thought in medicine does not match our concern here. (Peter; Bryne, 2002)

So we need to analyze whether mental illness is caused by the chemical imbalance in the brain. Though it is possible, it not that simple. Individuals have been diagnosed with chemical imbalances in spite of the actuality that there is no test that exists to stand as truth to this assertion and also there is no genuine formation as to what a correct chemical balance would be. (Lyons; Cukrowicz; Reeves & Joiner, 2002). Opposing the popular thought that scientists have not been able to come up with a consistent genetic, anatomical, biochemical, or other functional marker that can actually differentiate healthy people from the mentally ill.

But this does not really stop the psychiatrist from coming up with basically unverified statements that depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar illness, alcoholism, and a multitude of additional disorders are actually mainly biological or even genetic disorders, and in some time this shall be proven. Studies so far have been kind of helpful but have not really proved much and… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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How to Cite "Clinical Depression Major Depressions" Term Paper in a Bibliography:

APA Style

Clinical Depression Major Depressions.  (2003, October 12).  Retrieved January 15, 2021, from

MLA Format

"Clinical Depression Major Depressions."  12 October 2003.  Web.  15 January 2021. <>.

Chicago Style

"Clinical Depression Major Depressions."  October 12, 2003.  Accessed January 15, 2021.