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Co-Teaching Strategy Best for LearningThesis

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Co-Teaching Strategies

Which Co-teaching Strategies is the Best for High School

Since the U.S. government has enacted the NCLB (No Child Left Behind) Act in 2001, schools in the United States have been searching for a quality educational delivery option that will provide highly quality instructions. Co-teaching has been identified as an effective teaching delivery model that will deliver student with high quality instruction. Co-teaching is the teaching strategy where two or more people share the responsibility for delivering instruction to students. In other words, co-teaching involves a distribution of teaching responsibilities among two teachers that include planning, evaluation and instruction within a teaching environment. Co-teaching is an instructional and teaching arrangement where a special education teacher and general education teacher deliver specialized instruction along core instruction to a diverse group of students within a single space. Co-teaching requires educators to make joint instructional decisions and share responsibilities for pupils and learning. One of the benefits of co-teaching is that it reduces a stigma for special needs students, increase respect and understanding for special needs students. Moreover, co-teaching improves a sense of heterogeneous classroom community. In a co-teaching environment, instructional and teaching fragmentation that often occurs in other teaching delivery option is minimized. The option makes students to benefit from high quality instructional delivery. In a co-teaching environment, all students will receive improved instruction that include academically talented students with average ability, and students who at risks of school failure. In a co-teaching environment, special co-teachers or service providers have a better understanding of the expectation of both students' behaviors and academics.

The study develops the research objective to enhance a greater understanding of an appropriate co-teaching approach for the high social study.

Research Objective

To learn in a positive way the co-teaching strategies that will work in the high school social studies class.

Research Organization

The project is organized in 6 chapters.

Chapter 1 provides the introduction, the research objective and research questions.

Chapter 2 discusses the previous studies that discuss overview of co-teaching model and different type of co-teaching models using in the high schools.

Chapter 3 provides the research methodology that reveals the method of data collection and analysis.

Chapter 4 provides the results that identify that Parallel Teaching as the best co-teaching method for high schools.

Chapter 5 presents the discussion revealing the summary of the results.

Chapter 6 provides conclusion.

Rationale for Choosing the Study

Major reason for choosing the co-teaching approach is the challenges the researcher faces when carrying out the sole teaching responsibility. The traditional solo teaching approach is a teaching strategy where one teacher takes the responsibility of teaching and planning of the whole class. Typically, a traditional teaching approach is being identified as a takeover classroom teaching approach because the teachers is responsible for all activities and assume all classroom responsibilities. (Bacharach, Heck, & Dahlberg, 2010; Badiali & Titus, 2010).

Moreover, at the national level, the model of NCLB (No Child Left Behind) is unwilling to accept the traditional sole teaching approach because the traditional teaching approach is unable to prepare students for the collaborative practitioners. (Darragh, Picanco, Tully, and Henning, 2011). Other problem that the researcher faces with the traditional teaching approach is the inability to foster teacher-student development to satisfy the school timeline. Thus, the researcher has identified the co-teaching as a teaching strategy that fosters effective teaching environment. Since 1970, collaboration has become a popular approach to deliver special values to students. The rationale for choosing co-teaching approach is the benefit that students derive from the teaching approach. One of the benefits of co-teaching approach is that it reduces the teacher-students ratio which assists in enhancing concentration of teachers towards students. Moreover, the co-teaching assists teachers to share their expertise in order to enhance teachers' values. Co-teaching format also assists teachers to work collaboratively and freely to enhance students" learning environment. Moreover, the co-teaching strategy makes the participating teachers to jointly involve in decision making, teaching, planning, and student assessment. More importantly, co-teaching has emerged as a promising and effective instructional strategy for K-12 students. (Bacharach, Heck, & Dahlberg, 2010; Roth & Tobin, 2001).

Despite the benefits that students can derive from the co-teaching environment, different co-teaching models exist that include parallel Teaching, One teach One support approach, Station Teaching, Team Teaching, One teach One observe, and Alternative Teaching approach. However, a co- teaching model appropriate for social science subjects may not be appropriate for science subjects. Moreover, the previous literatures on co-teaching focus on roles of co-teachers rather than impact of co-teaching on students' learning outcomes. (Friend, Cook, Hurley-Chamberlain, & Shamberger, 2010). This study attempts to solve the problems by investigating the co-teaching strategy that will work for social studies classes in the high school.

Research Question

Learning in a Positive Way: What Co-teaching Strategies Will Work in the High School Social studies classroom environment?

The review of the literature is very critical to enhance a greater understanding on different co-teaching approaches that has worked in different learning environments in the United States.

Literature Review

Overview of Co-Teaching

Titus (2013) argues that the shortcomings identified in the traditional teaching approach make the policy makers to implement the co-teaching model in many schools in the United States. For example, the traditional teaching format makes teachers to dominate all emphasizes of students' learning. If a teacher is weak in teaching, it will influence the overall students' learning. Moreover, the traditional teaching approach makes students to be exposed to the monotony system of teaching, which can make student's learning experience to become boring for both students and teachers. Based on the shortcomings identified in the traditional teaching approach, many teacher education programs started implementing the co-teaching principles in their teaching approaches. Co-teaching is defined as a teaching strategy where two teachers work together, share planning, deliver instructions and assessments. (Titus, 2013).

Theoretically, the co-teaching is based on knowledge-in-practice and Knowledge-for-practice. In a knowledge-in-practice approach, teachers drive knowledge from their teaching experiences. However, in knowledge-for-practice, it is believed that teachers acquire knowledge from a formal setting. When co-teaching model is implemented using the knowledge-in-practice, it has a potential to foster and enhance deeper understanding for K-12 students, mentors, teachers and supervisors. Typically, the teaching structure assists in creating opportunities for teachers and constructing knowledge in classroom.

Increase in the emotional support is another benefit of co-teaching model. For example, when teachers work together, they share concerns and issues with one another, which assist in reducing an emotional stress. Moreover, co-teaching approach enables teachers to acquire social capital by establishing social networks with the co-teachers.

Murawski & Dieker (2004) point out that co-teaching is the only teaching approach that can satisfy the spirit of "No Children Left Behind" (p 52) because the strategy will ensure the success of both normal and disabled students. The co-teaching approach is likely to "increase the outcomes for all students in the general education setting, while ensuring that students with disabilities receive necessary modifications yet are provided instruction by a content expert." (Murawski & Dieker, 2004 p 53).

Shumway, Gallo, Dickson, et al. (2011) in their argument reveal that the IDEA (Individual with Disabilities Act) was passed into a law in 2004 to put pressure on educators to ensure that students with disabilities receive high quality instructions from high quality teachers. The pressures on educators have made schools to search for an effective service delivery option that will enhance high quality instruction for students with disabilities. Co-teaching is the service delivery model that can address the needs of student with disabilities. The co-teaching approach ensures that students receive high quality contents from highly qualified teachers with differentiation strategies. Shum way, et al. (2011) further argue that teachers, students and administrators can derive benefits

"When there is a well constructed co-teaching model(s) in place which is supported by strong, ongoing professional development and a supportive administrator. Listed below are possible benefits for students, teachers, and schools." (Shum way, ET al.2011 p2).

The new section reviews the literatures that discuss different types of co-teaching models to identify the appropriate co-teaching model for the social studies class in the high school.

Different Types of Co-Teaching Model

Parallel co-teaching occurs when co-teachers facilitate, instruct or monitor the work of different set of students in the classroom. Parallel co-teaching is beneficial to students and teachers because it decreases the teachers-to-students ratio, increase differentiation, data collection and individualization to meet student's need. Moreover, the approach assists co-teaching personnel to establish closer relationships with students. Parallel co-teachers may split classes evenly. One teacher may take up majority of the students while other teachers may work with small-group of students. In parallel co-teaching environment, one co-teacher may work with a group of students while another group of students work with a support personnel that include paraprofessional, or special educator. Moreover, another group of students may work with another support person while fourth group work independently. Over the course of the class period, students rotate among respective co-teachers. Parallel co-teaching facilitates student-to-student interaction and provides the… [END OF PREVIEW]

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