Term Paper: Cognitive Processes the Development of Psychiatry

Pages: 5 (1624 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Psychology  ·  Buy This Paper

Cognitive Processes

The development of psychiatry since the 1920s has seen many leaps. This has benefited humanity in such a way that people are now able to better understand themselves and others. Mental illnesses today can also be treated in a much more effective way than a century ago. It is also true, however, that some of the theories created by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung and his contemporaries are still used today to effectively understand the way human beings think and behave. One such theory is the types of Cognitive processes. Jung identified eight of these types (Nardi, 2007). Three cognitive process types are Extraverted Sensing (Se), Extraverted Intuiting (Ne), and Introverted Feeling (Fi).

Extraverted Sensing

Extraverted Sensing is a term used to describe the awareness of the physical world in specific detail. The result of such an experience of the physical world may be to act for the purpose of obtaining and immediate result. As this type of cognitive process develops, the individual becomes increasingly skilled in noticing relevant facts and occurrences among a large amount of data and experiences. This provides the ability to learn and understand all the facts about the immediate context or focus area. To do this, a person is actively involved in searching for input regarding the situation until all sources of information have been exhausted. The search may also terminate when something else captures the individual's attention. This cognitive process is also involved when he individual follows physical impulses or instincts without reserve for the purpose of enjoying the present moment by means of action. Cues are read instantly for the purpose of experiences the thrill of immediate action.

Felder and Brent (2005): "Understanding Student Differences."

Felder and Brent's (2005) study begins by identifying the problem of increasing drop-out rates among engineering students in the United States. The authors claim that many educators view these in a positive light, under the assumption that those who drop out are not well equipped to be engineers in the first place and are therefore no great loss for the industry. The authors, however, disagree with this view, noting that the high drop-out rates should be reviewed in terms of a potential mismatch between student learning styles and instruction methodologies. In their investigation, the authors find that the majority of engineering students tend towards the extraverted sensing category of cognitive process, while engineering instruction, on the other hand, focuses on a more intuitive context. Hence, there is a basic divide between how students learn and how they are being taught. To remedy this, the authors suggest that instructors should not only be aware of the variations in cognitive processes among their students, but that this awareness should also be used to create a more effective learning environment for them. In other words, since engineering tends to be a highly sensory profession, its tendency would also be to attract sensory learners.

There are many positive aspects to how the study has been put together. The authors have clearly made a thorough effort to investigate existing data on learning and instructional processes among the population represented in the study. There are several sketches and graphs to present these visually, all placed in such a way as to enhance an understanding of the claims being made. There are also some excellent suggestions for future study to help attract, retain and effectively develop relevant skills among engineering learners.

One shortcoming, I feel, is that the authors have made no additional study of their own. I believe that additional work by the authors, with a population of learners and instructors they have selected themselves would have greatly enhanced the validity of their claims in a more effective way than a mere regurgitation of existing research results. Nevertheless, the study contains very relevant information and an excellent basis that can fuel future investigations in the field.

Extraverted Intuiting.

In contrast to Extraverted Sensing, Extraverted Intuiting is a more subtle process, where the individual notices the hidden meanings beyond the physical and interprets them. What makes this process interesting is the fact that many different interpretations are possible for any one idea, behavior, occurrence, or whatever is being evaluated. As such, various representations of reality is possible, and a person can consider things "as if." A person who is well developed in this cognitive process can entertain many different ideas, thoughts, beliefs, and meanings a the same time with the assumption that they could all be true (Nardi, 2007). Various contexts and connections are used to form a type of "weave" from the clues a person observes in the physical world. In this way, a type of "cross-contextual" thinking is created, which is rather more complex that simply acting and reacting in terms of the physical, sensual world. This process can usefully apply to the psychiatric professions or a workplace role that involves a need for complex interpretations such as leadership.

Kay, Francis and Robbins (2011): "A distinctive leadership for a distinctive network of churches? Psychological type theory and the apostolic networks."

The study focuses on determining the major personality types among apostolic church leaders. The authors begin by making a comparison between the general U.K. population and leadership figures in churches. Interestingly, significant differences are found among the general lay population and church leaders, and especially among the men in the two groups. The former group, for example, demonstrates a tendency towards extraverted sensing, while the latter tends more towards extraverted or introverted intuiting. When considering the nature of church leadership and cognitive types, it makes sense that church leaders would tend towards intuiting in favor of sensing. The first part of his study is then devoted to a thorough overview of existing work in the field, including a history of cognitive theory, as well as instruments to determine cognitive types. This is followed by the methodology of the current study, results, and conclusion.

The methodology includes population selection, instruments, and data analysis. While the selected sample is relatively small, consisting of only 164 men in apostolic church leadership, there is a significant range in ages, which is relevant to the study and its results. I believe, however, that it would have been interesting to compare the results found with the same results among female leaders in the profession. Nevertheless, there is an interesting comparison with male lay persons in the country. The study also provides valuable grounds for further investigation in the field.

Introverted Feeling

Introverted Feeling involves images, feeling tones, and gut reactions rather than words (Nardi, 2007). As such, this cognitive process has a filtering purpose. Information is filtered to match a selected collection of values, desires, or chosen beliefs. A situation is therefore weighed on a continual basis to determine its worth or importance. Contexts such as peace and conflict in any situation is then balanced according to the results of the filtering process. Although this process can occasionally be expressed in speech, it is more generally expressed through actions that result from a thinking and evaluation process. Introverted Feeling can function to identify sincerity, insincerity, or a basic "goodness" in people. It provides the individual with an internal sense of the nature of others by reading distinctions in feeling tones (Nardi, 2007).

Gross and Ochsner (2005): "The Cognitive Control of Emotion."

A strong sense of Introverted Feeling can enable the individual to more effectively control emotion by being aware of its root causes. As Gross and Ochsner (2005, p. 242) mention, things like "conflict, failure, and losses" can result in extreme emotions that are difficult to control. Yet, human beings do have the capacity to control their reactions to disappointing situations by cognitively considering their context and the values they affect. According to the authors, attentional control is used to regulate emotion by a cognitive selection process among… [END OF PREVIEW]

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