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Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for EarlyEssay

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[. . .] Purpose Statement

The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the introduction of a pet dog on the daily lives of women living in a correctional half-way house. In particular, issues of substance use and abuse, hostile conflicts and overall well-being will be addressed through a mixed-methods design comparing two half-way houses, one with a dog and one without a dog. In addition to comparing the two houses, a pre-post analysis will be conducted to analyze the impact of introducing a dog to one half-way house.

Research Question

1) Does having a pet live in a correctional half-way house reduce the number of citations for substance use?

2) Does having a pet live in a correctional half-way house reduce the number of hostile conflicts between residents?

3) How do women living in a correctional half-way house describe the influence of having a pet live in the house with them? What qualitative benefits do they perceive as a result of having the pet?

Hypotheses

It is hypothesized that the correctional half-way house will experience a reduction in the number of citations issued for substance use as well as a reduction in the number of hostile conflicts between residents after the introduction of a pet to the house. It is also hypothesized that women will report an increased sense of self-efficacy and happiness, as well as reduced anxiety and stress after the introduction of the pet. In addition to within-house changes, it is also hypothesized that the house with the pet will show overall greater levels of improvement as compared to the house without the pet.

Method

Two correctional half-way houses will be selected to participate in the study. The residents will be matched for similarities in substance abuse issues and demographics. For a period of two months both houses will operate as usual, with no pets. Participants will complete weekly interview sessions with a research assistant to discuss issues they are having in the house, issues concerning substance abuse and issues related to conflict. Participants will also complete weekly measures of depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and stress. After the two-month period, one house will have a pet dog introduced to the house. The dog will live at the house and the women in the house will be allowed to set a schedule for where the dog sleeps and for sharing in the duties of taking care of the dog, such as feeding the dog, grooming the dog and taking the dog for walks. The other half-way house will continue to operate as usual without a dog. The weekly interviews and questionnaires will continue. After another two months the results of the data collected will be analyzed. T-tests will be used to compare the average number of weekly citations for substance abuse and the number of hostile conflicts between residents. Results of the depression, anxiety, stress and self-efficacy questionnaires will also be analyzed. Furthermore, the results of the individual interviews will be thematically analyzed in order to assess the residents" perceptions of the influence of the pet on their experiences living in the house.

References

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Barker, S. & Dawson, K.S. (1998). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on anxiety ratings of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Services, 49, 797-801.

Breuil, V., De Rotrou, J., Forette, F., et al. (1994). Cognitive stimulation of patients with dementia: preliminary results. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 9, 211-217.

Cochran, S.D., Mays, V.M., Bown, D., Gage, S., Bybee, D., Roberts, S.J, Goldstein, R.S., Robinson, A., Rankow, E.J., & White, J. (2001). Cancer-related risk indicators and preventative screening behaviours among lesbian and bisexual women. American Journal of Public Health, 91(4), 591-597.

Diamont, A.L., Wold, C., Spitzer, K., & Gelberg, L. (2000). Health behaviors, health status and access to and use of health care: A population-based study of lesbian, bisexual and heterosexual women. Archives of Family Medicine, 9, 1043-1051.

Greer, K.R. (2000). The changing nature of interpersonal relationships in a women's prison. The Prison Journal, 80(4), 442-468.

Hodges, J.R. & Grahm, K.S. (1999). A reversal of the temporal gradient for famous person knowledge in semantic dementia: implications for the neural organization of long-term memory. Neuropsychologia, 36(8), 803-825.

Matthews, A.K., Bradenburg, D.L., Johnson, T.P., & Huges, T.L. (2003). Correlates of underutilization of gynecological cancer screening among lesbian and heterosexual women. Preventive Medicine, 38(1), 105-113.

Knapp, M., Thorgrimsen, L., Patel, A., Spector, A., Hallam, A., Woods, B., & Orrell, M. (2006). Cognitive stimulation therapy for people with dementia: cost-effectiveness analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 574-580.

Knowles, J. (2010). Cognitive Stimulation Therapy. Working with Older People, 14(1), 22-25.

Pelissier, B., Wallace, S., O'Neil, J.A., Gaes, G.G., Camp, S., Rhodes, W., & Saylor, W. (2001). Federal prison residential drug treatment reduces substance use and arrests after release. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 27(2), 315-337.

Polek, C.A., Hardie, T.L., & Crowley, E.M. (2008). Lesbians' disclosure of sexual orientation and satisfaction with care. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 19(3), 243-249.

Saslow, D., Runowicz, C., Solomon, D., Moscicki, A., Smith, R.A., Harmon, J.E. & Cohen, C. (2002). American Cancer Society guideline for the early detection of cervical neoplasia and cancer. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 52, 342.

Spector, A., Thorgrimsen, L, Woods, B., Royan, L., Davies, S., Butterworth, M. & Orrel, M. (2003). Efficacy of an evidence-based cognitive stimulation therapy programme for people with dementia. British Journal of… [END OF PREVIEW]

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