Community Colleges in America Term Paper

Pages: 15 (4864 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 25  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Teaching

In addition, community colleges have traditionally striven to increase access to higher education through an open admissions policy -- often not even requiring a high school diploma -- and low, or no, tuition." (Kane and Rouse 65)

Joseph F. Kett's "The Pursuit of Knowledge under Difficulties: From Improvement to Adult Education in America, 1750-1990" deals with the evolution of adult education over the years. It starts out with self-education as it is portrayed in American history before it was formalized: the first universities didn't appear in the United States until the late 1800's. The author also deals with various class and social differences that were caused by the lack of availability of adult education although the advent of industry ultimately necessitated this development. As the Author moves into the 20th century and reviews contemporary innovations, including the advent of junior colleges and eventually the community colleges as we now know them. The author also reviews industrial education at it was introduced at the turn of the century and later came to be perfected as workers faced domestic and international education and finally came to face a working environment that constantly requires skill updates. The author constantly makes comparisons between modern-day innovations and those that predominated in the nineteenth century.Get full Download Microsoft Word File access
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Older Adult Education: a Guide to Research, Programs, and Policies by Robert Manheimer deals with the concept of "Lifetime Education" deals with such concepts as "Older Adult Learning in the Technological Age," where he "examines the influence on older adult education of computer technology and forms of distance learning, such as telecommunications." He writes, "We review the emerging literature on model programs and research regarding computer literacy among seniors, their motives for seeking knowledge of computers, and some preliminary findings of the benefits. How seniors may participate in the information highway is also discussed." He also dedicates a chapter to Generations Learning Together," in which he "considers recent emphasis on intergenerational programming and focuses on those programs inviting members of different generations to learn from one another and to take advantage of multigenerational perspectives in joint or co-learning ventures." (Manheimer xviii)

Leland Medsker, author of The Junior College: Progress and Prospect is the Vice-Chairman Center for the Study of Higher Education at the University of California at Berkeley. This book both deals with 'transfer' and 'terminal' students; that is, students that wish to transfer to a two-year school and those that wish to complete a course of study at the Junior College. Here he voices a common concern: "The fact that technical institute work may on occasion be transferable illustrates the point that the transferability of a course depends on its acceptance for credit by a four-year college, particularly the four-year college of an individual student's choice. However, four-year colleges vary in what they will accept; hence a course may be transferable to one institution but may not be acceptable to all." (Medsker 52) He makes the observation that the two-year school will not be able to find its footing unless it is able to develop skills independent of those found at four-year schools. This will forever condemn the two-year school as an institution of learning that serves only to prepare students for the third and fourth year of school that they can complete at a four-year school. In that two-year schools find their footing, these programs can be traditional liberal ones (offering English, Math classes and the like) or occupational ones (offering classes such as ones in mechanical work, law enforcement, bookkeeping, and personal finance.) Theoretically, a terminal program may either be general (general education, liberal arts, and the like.) The authors note: "Interviewed administrators reported that few students are interested in a strictly terminal general education curriculum. As result, most terminal curricula have a strong occupational orientation, although a limited amount of general education is usually included." (Medsker 54)

Attributions for Success and Failure among Anglo, Black, Hispanic, and Native American Community College Students," a journal article by Stephen Powers and Mark Rossman of Arizona State University examines "the factor structure of low-achieving Native American, Black, Hispanic, and Anglo community college students. It is hypothesized that ethnic differences will exist in community college students and that these differences will be found in the factor structure of these four ethnic groups." (Powers and Rossman 27) In their study, 399 students were administered "the Multidimensional Multiattributional Causality Scale in order to examine attributions of academic success and failure to ability, effort, context, and luck." The study finds that "Low-achieving Anglos, Blacks, Hispanics, and Native American community college students appeared to be similar in their attributions of academic success to external causes such as the context of an event and good luck. Anglos, Hispanics, and Native Americans were similar in their attributions of success to internal causes. Although Blacks were similar in attributions to internal causes, they also possessed an aspect of this second factor which included attributions of failure to lack of ability and bad luck. A different configuration appeared for the third factor. In the attribution of failure, Blacks and Native Americans had a similar structure, with strong loadings indicating attributions of failure to lack of effort. Hispanics and Anglos had a strong component indicating attributions of failure to the context of the event." (Powers and Rossman 30) In short, white and Hispanic students are more likely to blame failure on context, whereas blacks and native Americans blame their own laziness.

In "Adult Students At Risk: Cultural Biases in Higher Education," the author advocates a post-modern approach to an adult education: "To accomplish this task, we will explore several topics affecting the nature and practice of adult education. Foremost, we will spend some time examining the work of Knowles and other prominent adult educators to see where andragogical science intersects with and might be enhanced by postmodern possibility." The book goes on to outline an adult academic program that builds upon "border andragogy and praxis learning, two concepts crucial to the postmodern educational project." (Quinnan et all, 87) The authors conclude that "students and those that teach them would be enriched by the admission of individual experiences into a class setting that previously prohibited all but disciplinary versions of knowledge. (Quinnan et all, 106)

Joseph Rychlak defends the use of logic as a teaching methodology in Logical Learning Theory: A Human Teleology and Its Empirical Support. Relying heavily both on classical philosophers such as Kant and Hegel and the modern works of educational theorists, Rychlak's central premise is that post-secondary school instruction lacks causation, and as a result suffers because students are not given a precise understanding of the original concepts on which the concepts they are taught are allowed. Rychlak suggests a re-emphasis on Teleology in learning. The author begins by "examining the differences between mechanical and logical processing and then move on to a number of topics providing a clearer description of the latter." (Rychlak 92) The author believes that much of the problems with today's students can be seen as the result of illogical thinking. (Rychlak 282) He claims that "predication is a logical process of affirming, denying, or qualifying precedently broader patterns of meaning in sequacious extension to narrower or targeted patterns of meaning. The target is the point, aim, or end (telos) of the meaning-extension." (Rychlak 282) book by Dunn and Griggs, "Practical Approaches to Using Learning Styles in Higher Education" explores stages in improving the teaching environment of two and four-year colleges. These involve a comprehensive audit of practices, which is known as PEPS, the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey. The system is used to "identify individual and group patterns among students' learning-style preferences and then develop teaching strategies to respond to those patterns." (Dunn and Griggs, 2000. X) After learning style preferences are identified, students may identify their own strengths and weaknesses. The systems are also designed to obtain results for empowering students to study through their learning-style strengths. Some actually assign computer-generated prescriptions for studying and doing homework suggest instructional approaches that respond to individual, rather than group learning-styles. (Dunn and Griggs, 2000. Chapter 14). Professors then design instruction to respond to both global and analytic students' processing styles, as illustrated by Robin Boyle, Karen Burke, Shirley Griggs, and Nancy Montgomery (Chapters 17, 9, 12, and 4). Borrowing from Howard Gardner and others, this system also goes ahead with multimedia learning, and professors are requested to "Develop course content to accommodate a variety of perceptual preferences -- auditory, visual, tactual, and kinesthetic. (Chapters 17, 10, 9, 13, and 14). Special materials are then requests are made to individualize the Curriculum.

Dunn & Griggs, 2000. x) Most of these writers focus on developing ways to cater to learning styles that are more individualistic, both at the collegiate and graduate school level. At one point, the book advises that a teacher act as a facilitator, a guide, and a coach, advocating what it calls a 'constructivist philosophy. (Dunn and Griggs, 2000. 54)

In "The Naturalistic Approach to Learning Styles" by Tony Grasha, a professor… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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APA Style

Community Colleges in America.  (2003, April 2).  Retrieved October 31, 2020, from

MLA Format

"Community Colleges in America."  2 April 2003.  Web.  31 October 2020. <>.

Chicago Style

"Community Colleges in America."  April 2, 2003.  Accessed October 31, 2020.