Compare and Contrast the Differing Definitions of Critical Term Paper

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¶ … integrating critical as well as thinking. But several earlier conceptualizations try to concentrate primarily on the process of thinking and avoid its important qualifier, i.e of critical. Hence they tend to give over importance to the process of thinking and reduce the importance of critical aspects. Encouraging and facilitating the process of critical thinking of students is now being considered as an increasingly significant objective for higher education. Analyzing the element of critical thinking of students is important for estimating its progress. (Cheung; Kwan; Yue, 2002) Those whose education have not trained them to deal critically with issues as well as conflicts are in fact not being enabled to interact efficiently with other people, whether be it be the same or varied from themselves, or to take rational decisions linked to politics or that of the social issues. (Taylor; Patterson, 2000)

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Defining the concept of 'critical thinking' appears to differ by means of various perspectives and situations. According to Ennis & Norris, the term 'critical thinking' involves widening the concept of critical thinking from that of one focusing not on cognitive skills alone but also to include dispositions, beliefs, as well as habits necessary for analyzing the educational environment. According to Brookfield, critical thinking requires including measures of dispositions, beliefs as well as behaviors which are considered to be stable and which can deal with erroneous ideologies as well as myths. (Cheung; Kwan; Yue, 2002) According to Muir, putting students in the workplace atmosphere lets them to find out and confront assumptions and morals prevalent in the organization, to underline the perspective against which the behavior and methods of working prevail, and to discover options to a particular circumstance. (Braun, 2004)

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In the opinion of Katsioloudes and Tischio, the important constituents for the growth of student's critical thinking are total involvement of students; modeling of critical thinking by instructors and an importance placed on thought processes instead of the simple theme of learning. As per Prasad & Caproni, critical theory makes use of critical thinking skills within the background of a structure being evolved from its idea of social constructs, inequity of power, and explicit dedication to modify for the betterment of society at large. According to Jackson, the system of critical thinking uses critical thinking abilities in its assessment and interference for intricate social problems by unification of social theory as well as general systems thinking. In the opinion of Halpern; Pithers & Soden, critical thinking needs effort; thus development of critical thinking skills should be an unambiguous attention of the curriculum, for the same to create student's meta-cognitive knowledge of their thinking processes as also sharpen fundamental proficiencies. (Braun, 2004)

The literature on nursing diagnosis has, over the several years, accurately given significance to the issue relating to defining as well as developing the skills of critical thinking in a consistent manner. The idea of attaining a reliable diagnosis is based on consistent as well as an orderly usage of a thought process which is structured so as to attain the level of a real conclusion regarding the health situation of a patient or client. Teachers in the field of nursing steadily try to find means to teach this type of thinking with regard to a stepwise manner. The finesse is the capacity to critically think even under any serious circumstance, whether the situation is foreign or new, to understand that all those contents which have been taught would take one far. (Carroll-Johnson, 2001)

According to Fuller and Funnell, creative thinking could be considered as a self-correcting measure, skillful capacity to deal successfully as well as creatively with real life issues as well as confrontations as a result of responsible levels of thinking which promotes judgment which is good and thereby evoke a change in society. (Sewell; Fuller, Murphy; Funnell, 2002) it could also be said that critical thinking is the capability to analyze, measure, as well as assess data or experiences; which could be considered as independent inquiry. (Eljamal; Stark; Arnold; Sharp, 1999) There are several varied meanings attached to the concept of 'critical thinking'. and, even when there is no clear-cut definition related to the term, most of the research deals with as to how effectively to teach students in order to be problem solvers as well as those applying ideas as well as information. The bottom line of all this intends in the form of an illustration that when one goes to meet a physician, one would like to be attended by a specialist who could interpret, observe, judge as well as assess in place of whose educational background had been emphasized by that of note-taking as well as recitation. (Taylor; Patterson, 2000)

Now we shall now understand as to how cognitive skills, logical thinking and emotions can lead to the promotion of critical thinking. A real conceptualization of the concept of critical thinking ought to involve cognitive skills. Cognitive development could be understood as the integration of the acquired knowledge as well as experience into conceptual structure which is held to be complex. This integrative or synthetic process of linking ideas distinguishes the Cognitive development process from the pre-required processes of learning both the content knowledge as well as the skills required for effective thinking. (Eljamal; Stark; Arnold; Sharp, 1999) Cognitive skills which are being made use of in critically assessing issues tend to involve differentiating the fact which is verifiable and also opinion, and also among the relevant as well as irrelevant information. (Taylor; Patterson, 2000)

Studies have proved that cognitive skills lead to critical thinking. Research has shown increased forms of critical thinking among the students who have greater requirement for cognition and enhanced active learning. In the case of students whose cognitive capacities have been advanced by means of course exercises and assessment methods are able to promote the idea of critical thinking. The cognitive development, involving interpretation skills, analysis, assessment, as well as inference would tend to include the student's reading of a message as well as forming judgment regarding its effects. This is a function which is considered to be most typical with regard to the assessment of deduction in that of critical thinking. Further with regard to tapping of the student's capability in relation to deduction, the assessment of cognitive skills analyzes their understanding and acceptance of the varied fallacies, inclusive of those including slippery slopes, over-generalization, as well as wrong links. The assessment could also understand and tap knowledge of students with regard to socio-political values, which is important for finding about the incredibility relating to an argument. (Cheung; Kwan; Yue, 2002)

Even when educators have been providing increased focus with regard to developing critical thinking skills, less focus have been provided to the logical arguments which are considered to be an important aspect of critical thinking. (Duplass; Ziedler, 2002) it seems that a person must be capable enough to analyze in terms of logic, identify erroneous assessment, and build logical points so as to imagine matters in critical terms. Assessment of issues by using logic offer the apparatus required to be a critical thinker. (Carroll-Johnson, 2001) With the logical understanding as differentiating between the verifiable facts as well as value statements; differentiating relevant from that of the irrelevant reasons or observations; deciding the real accuracy relating to a statement; deciding the credibility with regard to a source; understanding ambiguous statements; understanding assumptions which are unstated; identifying bias; recognizing logical fallacies; recognizing inconsistencies relating to logic with regard to reasoning as well as deciding the total strength with respect to argument or conclusion, one can create facilities for creative thinking. The failure to make use of these logical operations during the time of discourse leads to fallacious reasoning as well as wrong formation of ideas as well as opinions and thereby negatively impacts creative thinking. (Duplass; Ziedler, 2002)

It seems that educators have laid a lot of importance on logic for promoting critical thinking and have overlooked the contribution of emotion in facilitating critical thinking. 5 Judged from a logical aspect, emotion of any nature is considered to be devoid of logic. Yet while evolving the process of understanding in terms of logic to that of the final phase of critical thinking, there ought to bring about the importance of emotion into this process. The variation remains in the capacity of the thinker to appreciate the effect of the notion of emotion on creative thinking, and to select the ideal option which permits for the value of logic as well as emotion. The critical thinking process therefore might be regarded to possess an inherent component of emotion as individuals are sometimes involved in reviewing the urgency to alter their principles and ideas. Exposure with regard to new forms of ideas as well as new methods of thinking enables various functions among them thereby confronting as well as altering one's understanding of the world as well as disrupting the prevailing prejudices. And recognizing the multitude of ideas as well as approaches is significant, since it increases… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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