Comparison Between Tesco UK and Walmart US on Motivation and the Effects of Employee Performance Literature Review Chapter

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¶ … TESCO (UK) and WAL-MART (U.S.) on motivation and the effects of employee performance

Motivation:

Motivation is termed as an interaction of individuals with the situation however the individual capacity to respond to situations should also be considered in order to completely understand the phenomenon and role of motivation. The emphasis on motivation as an important factor is advanced through the situational theories. The conceptual basis provided by the situational theory is used as a basis for problem recognition, constraint's understanding, and a single focus of motivation. The views of Kimand Grunig (2011) are comparable with Martins and Martins (2003). According to Martinset al. (2003) the changes in the situations and external and internal factors result into different levels of motivation in employees.

One of the most relevant theories of motivation is regarded as Frederic Herzberg's two factor theory. It is also denoted as motivation hygiene theory. The theory presented by the researcher is based on the categorization of factors that motive employees in order to feel satisfied or unsatisfied about their jobs. The research of Backer in 1970s tried to imitate the findings of two factors theory and concluded that the satisfied employees were entirely different form the responses while they do not feel satisfied. The views of Martin et al. (2003) are confirmed by the study Oliver (2010) as the conformance of the motivation hygiene theory. The research of Oliver (2010) further confirms similar results as they are related to the statement that the satisfaction should be opposed by no satisfaction and dissatisfaction with no dissatisfaction. It does not conform that dissatisfaction is the opposite of satisfaction according to two factor theory. Hence it is confirmed that the factors leading to job satisfaction are different from the factors leading towards dissatisfaction in job (Martin et al. 2003; Hayes, Bonner & Pryor2010; Oliver 2010).

Martin et al. (2003) argues that in organizational context the Herzberg two factor theories can be termed as two different set of components for eliminating dissatisfaction and creating satisfaction respectively. The factors that influence job dissatisfaction are also regarded as hygiene factors including supervision, salary, organizational polices, job security, working environment, and relations with coworkers. The factors influential for creating satisfaction and motivate employees are career opportunities, recognition, responsibility, and achievement. The findings of research Oliver (2010) are also similar to the above stated factors and Martin et al. (2003) conclusions.

However it is also essential to highlight the limitations and shortcomings of the two factor theory. The work of Herzberg is criticized in terms in Martin et al. (2003) with respect to its limited methodology. The validity of the claims that employees claim success as an internal factor and failure as extrinsic factor is a widely contested claim as survey results presented in the work of Herzberg has limitations. The reliability of the theory is also contradictory as it lacks the equal analysis criterion for interpretation of results. The view that acceptability levels for job are not clearly defined in the theory as dissatisfied employees still retain their work. The situational variables are also not included in the research as a consideration of previous research. The relationship between satisfaction and productively is not validated in the work of Herzberg (Mamiseishvili & Rosser2010). The disagreement and shortcomings of research are also derived through the interpretations of the work laid out by two factor theory of Herzberg. The application of research in various disciplines and practice is highly noticeable. The organizations and management apply the theoretic framework in creating a motivational work environment for employees is also evident of the study applicability.

According to Moneta and Siu (2012) motivation is regarded as the major contributor in defining a successful path of performance. There are multiple factors influencing motivation and as a result of these efforts the overall performance of employees is measured. The positive impacts of motivation are considerable in terms of the organizational performance in terms of two job performance proportions denoted as task performance and organizational relatedness behavior (Rich, Lepine & Crawford, 2010). The motivation of employees, subordinates, and peers play a vital role in increasing employee performance. The steady flow of feedback information from management, performance appraisal, and organizational culture are major contributors in facilitating employee performance. The research Levy and Williams (2004) provides a detailed view of the role of social elements in increasing employee performance. It also highlights the importance of social environment in which performance appraisal is conducted.

Miner (2012) elaborates role-based motivation theory in terms of managerial role in motivation and training of employees. It concluded that coaching and evaluation of feedback are essential factors in facilitating employee motivation. The managers deploy strategies for employees to coach and train individual employees for the expected results. Similarly the group training sessions are also a significant part of the managerial efforts to motivate employees in increasing performance. The role motivation theories translate their constructs as relationships with organization types, role requirements, and motivational attributes of these roles. The role motivations theories are defined in terms of their relevance as an alignment of role and motivations. The level of alignment in roles and motivation is translated into business performance as per the conclusion of Kolehmainen (2010). Therefore it is essential to understand the role of management in motivating g employees as well as the intrinsic and extrinsic factors for motivating employees. The leadership role of management and organizations in creating motivation and effects of employee performance should also be reviewed. The review of leadership role in effective motivation and positively affecting employees requires an in-depth analysis of leadership theories.

Leadership:

Throughout the historic perspective there are various theories and concepts regarding the leadership and motivation. According to Northouse (2012) the behavioral theory of leadership is based on the duties and steps performed by a leader during the course of job in order to achieve high performance. The comparison is made with the non-achievers to validate the claims in relation to the management activities, roles, and responsibilities. The contingency and situational theories rest on the notion that the characteristics and behavior of leaders cannot be understood without the context of a situation (Rowley, Hossain & Barry 2010).

Vigoda-Gadot andDrory (2006) argues that the leadership of organizations plays a vital role in employee performance. The early leadership theories consisted of democratic, autocratic, social or target oriented leadership styles. The effective leadership style in organizational context is developed on the transformational leadership theory. The work of Burns (1978) and Bass (1985) provides a valid ground for the transformational leadership theory in terms of a positive effect on employees. The positive effect presented in these studies is relevant in terms of their attitudes towards job and working environment. This ultimately is translated in their work performance. The effects of positive attitude in work environment are derived through fair polices, and justice in the workplace. The emphasis on significance of individual and organizational performance through deployment of effective leadership is also concluded in the work of West (2012).

The study Winter, Owen, Read and Ritchie (2010) conducts a survey and analyze its results to understand the impact of effective leadership in enhancing work safety, increasing operational excellence, and employee performance. The connection between leadership practices and employee commitment, and motivated employees is also investigated through a research survey. The research findings provide a concrete evidence of the interlinked nature of employee engagement and leadership. The study further concludes that the leadership practices promote company values and as a result the alignment of employee direction facilitates the overall increase in performance. The highly engaged employees are more likely to better performin various operational aspects in order to generate comparatively improved results than their competition. The engagement of employees through effective leadership also helps in promoting collective and individual self-efficacy (Ulrich & Smallwood2012; Winter et al. 2010). The high level of alignment with the organizational values and goals resulted into increased performance. The findings of the study suggest that the behavioral programs are least likely to create results unless they are integrated with the value-based culture through effective leadership. The research provides an overall trend for leadership and its effective nature in increasing employee performance. The research confirms the theoretic basis of generalization and validity. However further empirical evidence is required to confirm research results (Winter et al. 2010).

The review of research Ulrich (2012) facilitates in understanding the traits of leadership and role in increasing employee performance. The study argues that leadership in organizations develops strategy and implements that strategy through their decisions to increase motivation in employees and as a result the performance is also affected. The human resources and talent management strategies along with the personal proficiency are the factors that influence employee performance. The leadership in organization develops a successful strategy for future leadership to learn the organizational goals and techniques in creating a successful pattern. The research further provides four essential components for leadership for sustainable performance increment. These principles are denoted as a clarification of why leadership is essential, what is required… [END OF PREVIEW]

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