Complexities of Doing Business Term Paper

Pages: 15 (4073 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Business  ·  Buy This Paper

SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] Enumerate and briefly explain the research question(s) to be answered and identify the policy, practice, or theory issues to be addressed. List specifically the major research questions, and any sub-questions under each major question.

c. Describe the frame of reference & identify the theoretica1/conceptual (or other) frame of reference, which is the context of the study. Summarize the elements of the rationale for the study and its design briefly here.

d. Provide a brief overview of your date sources and data analysis plans (research design), including procedures for collecting, organizing, and analyzing the data. Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria- list specific eligibility requirements for subjects, including those criteria which would exclude otherwise acceptable subjects.

e. State your expected results - provide a brief summary of what findings are expected.

f. Fully discuss the significance/importance of the study:

1. Indicate how your research will refine, revise, or extend existing knowledge. Note that such refinements, revisions, or extensions may have both substantive and methodological significance.

2. Almost all studies have two potential audiences: practitioners and professional peers (scholars). Include statements relating the research to both groups.

3. Indicate what the research means for your institution or organization, e.g., it fits in with an institutional research program; it will contribute to renewed interest in research on the part of colleagues, etc.

4. Indicate what significance the research has in your own development.

g. Describe the scope and delimitation of your study (What will it include and why? What will be left out & why?

h. Outline the contents of the rest of the proposal.

II. SCHOLARSHIP (please write around 10 pages)

A. LITERATURE REVIEW

1. Pertinent literature, conceptual & empirical, has been reviewed.

2. If there is little or limited literature on the topic, writer has reviewed material close to the problem.

3. Literature review demonstrates sound knowledge of, synthesis of, and critical thinking about the literature.

4. Diversity issues are documented and discussed as appropriate to the study topic.

B. THEORY

1. An epistemological position is stated and expanded upon.

2. A theoretical framework or perspective is articulated or developed and articulated.

3. Competing theories are identified and a rationale offered for the choice of the selected theory or why a new theory is being developed.

4. Strengths and weaknesses of the selected theory are identified (a critique using relevant literature).

5. The selected theory is appropriate to the research question.

6. Integration of theory and empirical data is evident in the discussion and development of the theoretical framework to be used.

C. CONTRIBUTION, ORIGINALITY

1.The researcher identifies ways the study, substantively or methodologically, will make an original contribution; how the proposed study provides, in the definition of the problem/question, the theoretical perspective, the methods to be employed some contribution that is different from previous work and distinctly reflects the researcher's own thinking.

III. RESEARCH DESIGN (please write around 10 pages)

B.RESEARCH QUESTION

1. Questions are appropriate to quantitative methods and clearly flow from the literature.

2. Rationale and assumptions underlying the study are explicit.

3. Questions & sub-questions clearly articulated.

B. DESIGN

1. Design of study is clearly identified (experiment, cross-sectional survey, longitudinal survey, content analysis, secondary analysis, multi-method, etc.)

2. Design of study is appropriate to research questions/hypotheses and epistemological position.

3. Operational definitions given for all important terms and concepts in hypotheses.

4. Variables used are clearly specified (definition each variable).

5. If independent variables (treatments, interventions, and exposure to programs) are/are to be manipulated, this is clearly described.

6. If a treatment/intervention is the independent variable, there is evidence that it will be/has been delivered in a uniform, standardized way.

7. Confounding variables are identified and methods of control well described.

8. In replication studies, special attention is given to maintaining equivalent conditions for all critical variables.

9. Strengths and limitations of the design are identified and discussed. How to reduce biases (researcher bias) on data-collection method, source, analyst, or theory in the proposal to show you have good plan.

10. Describe the involvement of human subjects including initial evaluation procedures and screening tests, phases, procedures and sequence of the study.

11. Address the experience of investigators if procedures are to be performed for which the investigators have not been specifically credentialed.

12. Describe any costs related to the research procedures that are over and above those incurred by standard treatment, and indicate who will be responsible for them.

13. Analysis of the Study a.Delineate the precise outcomes (variables) to be measured.

A b.Describe how data will be analyzed, including statistical analysis.

A c.Describe methods used to estimate the required number of subjects.

C. INSTRUMENTATION

1. Instruments and other measurement devices and procedures are clearly linked to each defined variable.

2. Instruments/measurement protocols are justified as appropriate for the study population (in terms of age and other diversity parameters).

3. Rationale for selection of each instrument is presented, along with supporting literature on the psychometrics of instruments, including reliability and validity.

4. Reliability and validity of standardized instruments will be or is re-established for study sample/population.

5. If instruments are used for which psychometric properties are unknown, a clear rationale for their choice is presented.

6. If original instruments or procedures are used, their development is described and justified.

7. If original scales are to be developed, a plan to establish their psychometric properties (reliability, validity) is developed. (You must describe the reliability and validity about your study. How do you build the reliability and validity about your study?)

8. Monitoring Subjects and Criteria for Withdrawal of Subjects from the Study a.Describe the types, frequency and duration of tests, admissions (inpatient) outpatient visits. Consider specifying a monitor if the study involves a blinded design.

b. Define stop points and criteria for withdrawing subjects from the study.

D. POPULATION & SAMPLE

1. If a population is used/is to be used, the rationale for its use and its parameters are clearly described.

2. If a sample is used/is to be used, the population (of people, case records, text, etc.), method of sampling and rationale for the sampling method are well described.

3. Rationale for the sample size is indicated, preferably based on a power analysis or other acceptable criterion (e.g., confidence level/confidence interval justification).

4. External validity/transferability/generalizability of the study is addressed.

5. The sampling plan is consistent with the design, method and statistical procedures to be used in the analysis.

6. Sources of and procedures for recruitment of participants are detailed.

7. Procedures to enhance response rates and participant retention in the study are specified.

8. Attrition rate is anticipated and a strategy to handle it is specified.

9. Strengths and limitations of the population/sampling strategy are identified and discussed.

E. DATA COLLECTION

1. Methods/protocols of data collection are clearly described: how data are to be collected, by whom, under what conditions are clear.

2. Methods/protocols of data collection are appropriate to the research questions and design.

3. Methods of data collection are appropriate to the participants on gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation and other diversity dimensions.

4. Pre-test/pilot test plan is adequately described and is appropriate.

5. If applicable/appropriate, pilot data results are presented.

6. Strengths and limitations of the data collection strategy are identified and discussed.

F. DATA ANALYSIS

1. The nature/approach of the data analysis is clearly described and justified.

2. Analysis is consistent with questions, hypotheses, level of variable measure, and design.

3. If assumptions of chosen statistical models are violated, protective measures are indicated.

4. Data analysis demonstrates sound knowledge of the techniques used and their alternatives.

5. Strengths and limitations of the data analysis strategy are identified and discussed.

G. ETHICS

1. Research goals are consistent with the principles of working toward improving the situation of individuals and/or groups in society.

2. If this study involves human participants, the benefits and risks are clearly identified and communicated to participants.

3. If this study involves human participants, threats to free & informed consent are addressed.

4. Confidentiality of the data is adequately ensured.

5. The researcher has made provisions to share findings with participants.

6. The research clearly can be expected to receive clearance from the IRB.

7. Ownership of the data is clear.

8. Where the data will be stored and for how long is clear.

Any factors related to participant coercion, even if unintentional, and the researcher-participant power differentials are addressed.

9.Human Subject Protections:

a.Rationale for Subject Selection:

1). Strategies/procedures for recruitment b.Evaluation of Benefits and Risks/Discomforts:

1). Potential Benefits: Describe the potential benefits to subjects or to others (benefits to society) that may reasonably be expected from the research.

2). Potential Risks: Describe any potential risks -- physical, psychological, social, legal, drug toxicity or other associated with the proposed procedures and assess their likelihood and seriousness.

3). Risk/Benefit: Discuss why the risks to subjects are reasonable in relation to the anticipated benefits and in relation to the importance of the knowledge that may reasonably be expected to result. Consider the following in your discussion:… [END OF PREVIEW]

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APA Format

Complexities of Doing Business.  (2003, May 14).  Retrieved February 20, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/complexities-doing-business/2884071

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"Complexities of Doing Business."  14 May 2003.  Web.  20 February 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/complexities-doing-business/2884071>.

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"Complexities of Doing Business."  Essaytown.com.  May 14, 2003.  Accessed February 20, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/complexities-doing-business/2884071.