Research Paper: Concept Analysis of Characteristics of Pain

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[. . .] He was diagnosed with lung cancer. Mr. C physician lately discovered that the cancer cells had spread to the other parts of his body. When Janice took care of him, she discovered Mr. C constantly kept his eyes closed and just curled up with his knees against his chest. He typically held a bible in his hand and just prayed most of the day. The family came to his side and they prayed a lot to make him feel better. When Janice inquired Mr. C how he was holding up, Mr. C. normally said he was okay. When Janice asked Mr. C whether he was in pain, Mr. C blew her off and shook his head, but turned around and thanked her concern. Mr. C's pulse rate and blood pressure were to some extent raised. Janice was inquisitive in regards Mr. C's response for the reason that Janice's clinical knowledge told her that the patient whose cancer cells spread to other parts of the body usually went through some kind of pain and asked for pain medicine. She speculated why Mr. C did not have this reply and brought this question up. Mr. C answered, "God was killed on the cross and expired for everyone. He agonized for the future generation of people. His love is beyond anything else in the world. I only have bodily uneasiness. This kind of uneasiness cannot compare even close to how God has agonized for us when he was on the cross. So I would like to go through the way God suffered for everyone in order to recognize how he was able to go through pain for the people he loves." Mr. C never gave an answer to the question. Extra cases might not necessarily involve the exact same perception as the model case but could be comparable to the key idea or not (Gelinas & Puntillo, 2004). In this document, a borderline case and also the contrary case are each utilized in order to explain the perception concept of the model case.

Contrary Case

A contrary case is the sample which shows "not the perception." Individuals can effortlessly distinguish this perception as not the main concept (Poppe & Petrovic, 2011). Anna is a 4-year-old girl whose father brought her to the hospital for a vaccine shot last month. Her father brought her to health center again for a routine child check -up. However, When Anna arrived at the health center and looked at the nurses, she held her father a lot tighter with keeping her eyes closed at the same time. She even refused to allow her father put her down. When the nurses had a conversation with her, she started crying and yelled out, "I don't want to come to the hospital. Let's get out of here." The nurse made the point to the little girl by giving her a little synopsis of what was going to be going on. Nonetheless, Anna was not interested in paying her any attention and in fact seemed to be ignoring her, yelling "Let's get out of here."

Antecedents and Consequences

Antecedents are recognized as the incidents and events taking place before the present concept (Gelinas & Puntillo, 2004). Personal, environmental, and cultural values act as antecedents connected to the idea of pain. However, all three of these antecedents are recognized as being connected. Environment is linked to the event that basically does something like activate pain. The person's mind, body, or both may be influenced by this event, which produces actual or possible damage of the tissue for the person, for example venipuncture, harmful motivation or hospitalization. With that said, the individual's knowledge and attitude associated to the event likewise play a significant part (Poppe & Petrovic, 2011). This evidence and attitude, for example historical pain experience, could have some kind of an affect on how the individual expects and receives pain, and later it could possibly effect how the individual handles the pain.

The personal issue involves the person's present bodily and emotional state, personality, gender and socio-financial class. The physical complaint includes sleeping design, point of tension in the muscle, and whether the person is able of feeling the condition. The emotional condition comprises the person's anxiety and stress level. If the being has a higher pressure and anxiety level, the individual will feel pain more effortlessly. Furthermore, the person's personality likewise will affect how s/he observes pain. The person who has an optimistic approach in the direction of pain has a habit of to utilize positive methods in order to be able to deal with that type of pain. Women are the one that are inclined tend to be more delicate to perceive pain and are allowed to rapid their pain more every so often than men Kehlet, H., (Jensen & Woolf, 2006). From a social cultural viewpoint, persons from diverse socio-financial classes may deliberate pain otherwise. Fascinatingly, Kehlet & Woolf (2006) makes the point that individuals in a higher socio-economic class tend to rapid more and be implications for nursing more conscious of their pain than persons in lower socio-financial classes.

Cultural worth is the other precursor of pain. Torvik & Rustoen (2009) observed culture as a lifeway of a specific group, individuals in this specific group can learn and share their standards and believe together. Tracey (2008) makes the point that culture determines the way people will be able to figure out and live with pain in addition to react to pain. As a result, pain and its perception are at all times culturally designed. Even though the acknowledgment of pain is prejudiced by culture, Whelan & Meltzer (2004) highpoints pain expectation and pain recognition to express the person's attitude toward pain. Pain anticipation is well-defined as "expectation of pain as being inevitable in a given state of affairs," and pain receipt is "branded by willingness to knowledge pain (p.34)." These arrogances are learned in part from parents, brothers and peer groups of the person's society. As a result, family plays a significant part in affecting the person's reply to pain.

Consequences are the events or incidents that happen as results of the concept (Walker & Avant, 1995). Research shows that the consequences of pain are connected to pain outcome and the person's own clarification of the sense of pain. Pain response has a more bodily and biological emphasis; dealing with pain denotes to the perception of pain and is expressively absorbed. Pain reaction is observed as pain behavior. Pain actions are considered into involuntary and unpaid replies. Involuntary replies are not under straight aware control of the person. These responses emphasis on instinctive, non-verbal suggested replies, frequently in the autonomic nervous system, for instance, reflex responses and heart rate (Tracey, 2008). Voluntary replies require awareness and motor action.

Characteristically these responses enclose nonverbal and verbal responses. People will protest in regards to their pain or cry or sound (verbal). There are times when they could possibly wipe at the pain so that they can avoid the pain (non-verbal). Verbal pain exterior includes three stages of symbolization: an intrapersonal communication (unique something is not right), interpersonal message (crying for help) and a more multifaceted representative communication to others (Wolff).

These unpaid replies can be combined to active, passive or accommodative managing (Jensen & Woolf, 2006). Another type of consequence of pain is that the person could expound a meaning for their pain experience. People are able to move the pain experience and offer the understanding to pain experiences either definitely or damagingly (Tracey, 2008). This meaning of pain also reflects individuals' coping with their pain. Ferrell (1995) pronounced three procedures for seeking the meaning of pain, as well as instant causes (for example the pain point to possible cancer metastasis), abrupt effects (for example, the pain is saying I am not able to do things) and final causes (for example the pain what God wanted). The person or the health care givers could or could not be conscious of the connotation of the pain experience. On the other hand, the meaning of the pain experience will affect how persons interrelate with the environment and their relations with others (Gelinas & Puntillo, 2004).

Conclusion

In summary, the perception of pain was designated for concept analysis because pain has been recognized as a serious problem by both patients and health care providers. Nursing studies and collected works also present evidence of the consequences of unrelieved pain. However, learning about giving some kind of pain relief appears to be process that was ongoing. It's the wish of the researchers that this concept analysis of the perception of pain is helpful to nurses and other people that are working in the health care arena is because it providers in getting a better accepting of the perception of pain and in then applying suitable nursing actions so that the patient can be relieved of pain.

References:

Akyol, O., Karayurt, O., & Salmond, S. (2009). Experiences of pain and satisfaction with pain management in… [END OF PREVIEW]

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