Chapter Writing: Concise Analysis of the Effect of Advisory Participation in the Adolescent Years Grades

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[. . .] , 2012). Furthermore, such sampling aids in ensuring diverse, data-rich cases, and, thus, sample arrangement will only be determined following researcher entry into the field. Lastly, consistent with Saunders and coworkers (2012), the whole population may not be regarded as statistically representing the sample.

Additionally, as the survey (questionnaire as well as interviews) will prove to be a vital source of corroboration grounded in human affairs, much care will be taken to describe and understand them. Experienced participants who may be able to provide useful, crucial information with regard to the phenomenon may prove highly valuable to this research. Further, the questionnaire and interviews will be aimed at providing a descriptive sketch of a "typical" advisory initiative context and associated student performance; it won't be definitive. Thus, distinctive participants will be chosen for ensuring they adequately represent the situation under study (Cohen et al. 2011).


This study was performed on eighth and nine graders in five American schools situated within a mid-sized American agrarian locality (population: 55,000). The biggest employers of this community are a big computer technology company and state university. The sample selected for the research comprised of roughly 620 students (these pupils were interviewed for research purposes). Middle Eastern migrants account for 78% of the schools' student population, whilst 22% are American residents having Middle Eastern ancestry. Pupils from low income households account for 27% of students, who were entitled to low-fee or free lunches. The schools' staff comprises of 95% Caucasian-Europeans, whereas numerous instructional assistants and administrative staff members are from a Hispanic background (and native speakers of Spanish). The school offers an ELL (English Language Learning) course for its Middle Eastern student population, and are accorded 'magnet school' status for foreign-origin ELLs in the district. The community has 2 middle schools. Owing to their 'magnet' status, every migrant child in the locality enrolls in these schools. The schools have two counselors, both of whom understand Arabic while one's native language is Arabic. Basically, every pupil in the schools has Arab roots. Every study participant was a Middle Eastern migrant (Knudson-Martin, 2013).

Materials / Instruments

This research work chiefly employed the qualitative research techniques of informal interviewing and participant observation for collecting data. The choice of research design was based on the following two considerations: Firstly, its defined research question was believed to be better grasped, answered, and explained by qualitative description and interpretation instead of quantitative measurement. Secondly, its research question is generic, flexible, sketchy, and open-ended, with no earlier-established hypothesis utilized for research (Abukhattala, 2013). This study's literature review revealed that numerous prior researches offered empirical proofs of Arab stereotyping by American media. But the suppositions of the existing published researches dealing with the subject of Arab-American acculturation either focused on Muslim communities (both Arab and non-Arab) or implemented the acculturation model without accompanying research. Research works on the subject of Arab-American acculturation must aim at establishing measurements of sound reliability and validity, utilizing the vast research pool available on Latinos, Afro-Americans and other minority populations in the US. This will help the study benefit from the methodology as well as theoretical model capable of informing further studies on Arab-origin residents/citizens of the US (Semaan, 2014).

Data Collection, Processing and Analysis

Data Collection and Processing

In order to gather data for dealing with the research question outlined above, group questionnaires and interviews of Middle Eastern children, school administrators and faculty, and children's parents and other family members were performed. Interview/questionnaire participants belonged to multiple school clubs, which aimed at affording these migrant students a fair platform to connect to their school and also to discuss their experiences within community and school contexts. Every interview/questionnaire and meeting was carried out in English. Students' parents and other (adult) members of their families took part in interviews that came under the category of "parent interviews" for the study. Individual group discussions were carried out with school bilingual assistants and mathematics department teachers for acquiring a grasp of school staff's views with regard to this particular student population's engagement in school math and other scholastic areas. Interviewers were provided with a question script (Table 1) for use in individual interviews to aid them in commencing talks with and between respondents. The questions were framed through a meeting between two student counselors and the researcher, which focused on the key issues that affect Middle Eastern student and parental (or family) engagement (in their opinion). These questions intended to spark deliberation on the abovementioned issues. They were simply to act as an interview guide. It was not deemed necessary to strictly stick to the script. Further questions were posed depending on participant answers. Lastly, questions that failed to fit into the conversation flow were scrapped (Knudson-Martin, 2013).

Every interview/questionnaire conducted, as well as English translations of parental interviews, was voice-recorded, transcribed, coded and studied. Following preliminary analysis, the model and description that was derived out of the research data was put forward before a team of participant pupils as well as before the two school counselors for review, evaluation and feedback (Knudson-Martin, 2013). Teachers' and pupils' processing of, and response to, emotions were found to impact student education with regard to their cognitive, social, and emotional growth. One of the latest meta-analyses of studies conducted on initiatives directed at SEL (Social & Emotional Learning) reveals that a methodical procedure to promote pupils' emotional and social growth is an aspect shared by schools which recorded improved scholastic success, decreased student behavioral issues, and enhanced quality of educator-pupil relationships (Brackett & Rivers, 2013).



Teachers and Aides

School activities and interests

The best facets of the American education system for their kids

Knowledge regarding the backgrounds of Middle Eastern pupils

Tough and simple parts of school

The toughest facets of the American education system for their kids

Student social groups and circles

School-level, higher education-level and career goals

Parents' personal experiences in their interactions with the school

Middle Eastern pupils' fortes and weak points

Mathematics-related aims and interests

Treatment by community and school

Challenges linked to teaching migrant students


Mathematics tracking

Linguistic problems

School support and initiatives

Middle Eastern students' mathematical and general scholastic aims

Views regarding mathematical readiness in migrant Middle Eastern pupils

School administrators and teaching staff

Middle Eastern students' career goals

Middle Eastern students' mathematical and general scholastic aims

Friendships and relationships

Middle Eastern schools

Class groupings

Middle Eastern communities and schools


Educators' needs with regard to aiding migrant pupils

School and language

School support

Communication with student families

Table 1 -- Subject focus on questions (Knudson-Martin, 2013)

Data Analysis

As qualitative information isn't collected using a standardised technique like in the case of quantitative information, it needs to be segregated into groups for meaningful analysis. Despite the many research approaches, methods and practices at hand for qualitative information calculation and management, no standardised technique exists (Saunders et al., 2012). Within this study, a comprehensive data analysis approach will be employed, dependent on hypothetical proposals. That is, this research work will follow the original proposal underlying the (1) case study design and (2) research goals and purposes, which had shaped the data acquisition technique (Yin, 2014). Survey outcomes, with an aim to effectively carry out data analysis, will firstly be grouped based on virtually the same order as delineated by the theories. Hence, in chapter 4 (discussion), an attempt will be made at explaining study purposes and research questions that altered the research focus (Saunders et al., 2012).

This will be followed by information placement into theoretical frameworks and an examination of their degree of correspondence. In some data analysis phases, the researcher might come across ideas or suppositions not addressed by available pupil performance and advisory initiatives, related models and theories. Hence, such novel ideas and theories will be taken up for detailed discussion and recommendations on their potential associations to existing theories will be put forward. As stated by Saunders and co-workers (2012, p.385) in their research, information acquisition, analysis, and formulation and corroboration of findings and associations are, to a great extent, an interactive and interlinked collection of processes. This allows the researcher to recognize basic themes, interactions and associations in the process of data acquisition. Additionally, in this study, data will be analysed following completion of data collection as well as throughout the survey (Saunders et al., 2012).

Ethical Assurances

To reduce the possibility of getting the wrong results, Saunders and colleagues (2012) recommend giving particular attention to research design validity as well as reliability.

Reliability implies the likelihood of different studies arriving at similar conclusions if calculations are performed using the same tools. In truth, reliability concerns indicate precision-related issues and challenges, in addition to the measurement tool's correctness (Bouma, 2016).

Sticking to the above standpoint, Saunders and colleagues (2012) specify bias-related concerns that may be linked to reliability and that may be classified into two: interviewer bias… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Concise Analysis of the Effect of Advisory Participation in the Adolescent Years Grades.  (2017, January 3).  Retrieved April 21, 2019, from

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