Essay: Concise Analysis of Immunization for children

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[. . .] Nine of the RCTs used sugar solutions while the remaining two used glucose water and sweetened gum respectively. From six of these tests where one or several vaccine injections were administered on 665 test babies, it was established that the sweet fluids reduced the level of pain. In a separate RCT, the babies who took sugar solutions recorded even lower pain levels during vaccination. Three separate tests studied the various solutions differently working with 216 test babies, the results showed the lowest pains in the infants under treatment (Taddio et al. 2010).

Clinician-Led Distraction

An effective way of reducing discomfort and pain among infants during medical treatments is distraction. The strategy called clinician-led distraction is one which aims to distract the child while the treatment is taking place. This strategy is quite straightforward and easy as long as all the required tools are present or procured by the infant's parents. As long as the distractions are rightly selected in line with the age of the child, this strategy is very effective and holds the title of the sole intervention method which can be used on children from neonates to fully developed adolescents. (Taddio et al., 2015; Taddio, Shah et al., 2015; Taddio et al. 2010).

The effect of distraction by nurses was put to the test in an RCT and a further three quasi-RCTs. For these tests, the concerned nurses were educated via a 15-minute class, where they learned how to develop a child's interest in his/her age group's regular toys such as a movie or a mobile phone etc. The test children ranged in age from 2 months old to 11 years old. From the test results, it was clear that the distractions were successful in reducing the discomfort experienced by the kid's parents as well as medical personnel alike. In the sole test where mentally mature children -who could say how they felt clearly- were worked on, the results further reinforced the earlier conclusion that nurse-led distractions reduce procedural pain (McMurtry et al. 2015; Taddio et al. 2010).

Combined Cognitive-Behavioural Interventions

Cognitive-behavioral treatment refers to a group of specialized procedures which apply mechanisms developed based on a database of behavioral tendencies and mental psychology and has the function of changing behaviors, emotional reactions and knowledge. In order to give a general explanation of the painkilling effects of Cognitive-behavioral procedures, we assume a concurrent cognitive and behavioral modifying process. Only mature children who have the mental capacity to master and apply these intricate procedures are suitable to use them. You can use these cognitive-behavioral procedures for children above the age of 3 when administering vaccine injections for pain reduction (Taddio et al., 2015; Taddio, Shah et al., 2015).

The effectiveness of these procedures were studied by two RCTs and two quasi-RCTs in children with an age range of 3 -- 6 years. A mix of methods were applied in this test starting from the normal simple distractions to the more complicated actions which needs special training for the child, parent and medical persona in charge. These procedures were run through immediately preceding the vaccine injection administration by a well-drilled medical persona. From the results, we can conclusively say that the cognitive-behavioral procedures were effective in tuning down the discomfort and pain experienced during vaccination (Taddio et al. 2010).

Reference list

Taddio, A., McMurtry, C.M., Shah, V., Riddell, R.P., Chambers, C.T., Noel, M., MacDonald, N.E., Rogers, J., Bucci, L.M., Mousmanis, P. and Lang, E., 2015. Reducing pain during vaccine injections: clinical practice guideline. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 187(13), pp.975-982.

Taddio, A., Appleton, M., Bortolussi, R., Chambers, C., Dubey, V., Halperin, S., . . . Shah, V. 2010. Reducing the pain of childhood vaccination: an evidence-based clinical practice guideline. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 182(18), E843 -- E855. http://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.101720

Taddio, A., Shah, V., McMurtry, C.M., MacDonald, N.E., Ipp, M., Riddell, R.P., Noel, M. and Chambers, C.T., 2015. Procedural and physical interventions for vaccine injections: systematic review of randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials. The Clinical journal of pain, 31(Suppl 10), p. S20.

McMurtry, C.M., Noel, M., Taddio, A., Antony, M.M., Asmundson, G.J., Riddell, R.P., Chambers, C.T. and Shah, V., 2015. Interventions for individuals with high levels of needle fear: systematic review of randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials. The Clinical journal of pain, 31(Suppl 10), p. S109.

McGowan, A., Cottrell,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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