Controlling Our Emotions? Emotional Literacy Research Paper

Pages: 28 (8437 words)  ·  Style: Harvard  ·  Bibliography Sources: 28  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Psychology


g., Ekman & Friesen, 1975; Nowicki & Mitchell, 1998; Scherer, Banse, & Wallbott, 2001). When focused on the self, this dimension is related to greater emotional awareness (Lane, Quinlan, Schwartz, Walker, & Zeitlin, 1990), lower alexithymia (Apfel & Sifneos, 1979), and less ambivalence about emotional expressivity (King, 1998; King & Emmons, 1990). When focused on other people, this dimension encompasses what is meant by affect sensitivity (Campbell, Kagan, & Krathwohl, 1971), affect-receiving ability (Buck, 1976) and nonverbal sensitivity (Rosenthal, Hall, DiMatteo, Rogers, & Archer, 1979).

Use of emotion to facilitate thought

The second branch of El concerns the ability to use emotions to focus attention and to think more rationally, logically, and creatively. Using emotions may require the ability to harness feelings that assist in certain cognitive enterprises such as reasoning, problem-solving, decision-making, and interpersonal communication. Emotions can create diverse mental sets that prove more and less adaptive for various kinds of reasoning tasks (Isen, 1987; Palfai & Salovey, 1993; Schwarz, 1990; Schwarz & Clore, 1996). For example, some emotions may be more useful in stimulating creative thought (Isen & Daubman, 1984; Isen, Daubman, & Nowicki, 1987) and there may be a feedback loopwherein some people are especially creative in their experiences of emotion (Averill, 1999, 2000; Averill & Nunley, 1992).

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TOPIC: Research Paper on Controlling Our Emotions? Emotional Literacy: Assignment

The third branch of EI, understanding emotions, involves a fair amount of language and propositional thought to reflect the capacity to analyze emotions. It includes an understanding of the emotional lexicon and the manner in which emotions combine, progress, and transition from one to the other. Individuals who are skilled at understanding emotions have a particularly rich feelings vocabulary and appreciate the relationships among terms describing different feeling states. They may be especially sensitive to the manner in which emotion words are arranged as fuzzy sets organized around emotional prototypes (Ortony, Clore, & Collins, 1988), and adept at identifying the core meaning or themes behind various emotional experiences (Lazarus, 1991).

Managing emotion

The ability to regulate moods and emotions in oneself and in other people constitutes the fourth branch of El. When managing one's own feelings, people must be able to monitor, discriminate, and label their feelings accurately, believe that they can improve or otherwise modify these feelings, employ strategies that will alter their feelings, and assess the effectiveness of these strategies. Several investigators have identified clear individual differences in at least some people's perceived self-efficacy with respect to this ability (Catanzaro & Greenwood, 1994; Salovey, Mayer, Goldman, Turvey, & Palfai, 1995). Some people are also more or less effective in helping others to mange their emotions. For example, some individuals always know the right thing to say or do to cheer up their best friend, to motivate a colleague at work, or to inspire others, whereas other individuals Emotional Intelligence, N.d.).are less capable of effecting these outcomes (e.g., Wasielewski, 1985, cited by Emotional Intelligence, N.d.).

Goleman stresses that IQ and EI are separate competencies, yet do not oppose each other. Individuals with high IQ but low El are reportedly, comparatively rare. A correlation between IQ and some aspects of EI include:

Pure) High-IQ male is typified - no surprise - by a wide range of intellectual interest and abilities. He is ambitious and productive, predictable and dogged, and untroubled by concerns about himself. He also tends to be critical and condescending, fastidious and inhibited, uneasy with sexuality and sensual experience, unexpressive and detached, and emotionally bland and cold.

Pure) High-EI male is socially poised, outgoing and cheerful, not prone to fearfulness or worried rumination. He has a notable capacity for commitment to people or causes, for taking responsibility, and for having an ethical outlook; he is sympathetic and caring in his relationships. His emotional life is rich, but appropriate; he is comfortable with himself, others, and the sodal universe he lives in.

Pure) High-IQ female has the expected intellectual confidence, is fluent in expressing her thoughts, values intellectual matters, and has a wide range of intellectual and aesthetic interests. She tends to be introspective, prone to anxiety, rumination, and guilt, and hesitates to express her anger openly.

Pure) High-EI female tend to be assertive and expresses her feelings directly, and feels positive about herself; life holds meaning for her. She is outgoing and gregarious, and expresses her feelings appropriately; she adapts well to stress. Her social poise lets her easily reach out to new people; she is comfortable enough with herself to be playful, spontaneous, and open to sensual experience. She rarely feels guilty, or sinks into rumination (Emotional Intelligence, N.d.).

Michael Foucault

Foucault, whose ideas on relationships that exist between power, discipline, knowledge and human bodies are considered radical, claimed that "truth does not exist" (MacNaughton 2005, 5) but that truth "is linked in circular relations with systems of power which produce and sustain it, and to effects of power which it induces and which extend it." Foucault's "radical" ideas of "disciplinary power" or "docile bodes" and "power/knowledge" can seldom be found in mainstream early childhood text, MacNaughton (2005, 5) reports. Foucault, albeit, purports that child development or early childhood curriculum constitutes fiction created "through 'truth games' that express the politics of knowledge of the time and place" (Foucault, 1997, cited by MacNaughton 2005, 5).

Michael Foucault, considered one of the 20th century's influential thinkers, consistently challenged ways individuals think about "the police, schooling, welfare organizations, gay rights and care of the mentally ill. A number of diverse theories, including Marxism, phenomenology, structuralism and psychoanalytic theories of Friedrich Nietzche and Immanuel Kant contributed to Foucault's perceptions (MacNaughton 2005, 4).

A major part of work Foucault completed examines the relationships between knowledge, truth and power, along with how these relationships affect individuals and the institutions individuals create. Foucault's work, MacNaughton (2005, 5) suggests, incites educators to reconsider and deepen their understanding of equity, along with considering possibilities of equity "by radicalising their understandings of power and knowledge in early childhood institutions."

Consequently, Foucault's radicalisation serves activism, as educators discover and/or develop new ways to act for equity. (MacNaughton 2005, 5).

During her research on early childhood curriculum Sally Barnes, a kindergarten teacher and Director in South Australia, reports, she was drawn to Foucault's work. She particularly appreciates concepts Foucault purports such as "disciplinary power," "docile bodies" and "power/knowledge" (MacNaughton, 2005, 14-15). Barnes contends that these concepts helped her reconsider spaces known as "kindergarten" and things that occur during spaces. Barnes notes that, due to Foucault's belief in productive power, her understanding deepened regarding the bureaucracy in work environments (MacNaughton 2005, 14-15). Foucault argues that "knowledge and truth are tied up with the way in which power is exercised in our age...and are themselves caught up in power struggles... No knowledge is true knowledge, free from ideology, he purports.

Instead, Foucault claims, all knowledge is "culturally prejudiced (MacNaughton 2005, 22-23), and...therefore partial, situated and local." Institutions produce and sanction "truths," Foucault (cited by MacNaughton (2005, p 20) argues, that govern normal and desirable ways an individual is to think, feel and act (MacNaughton 2005, 29-30). A set of truths within a given field, or "regime of truth," according to Foucault, generates an authoritative consensus "about what needs to be done in that field and how it should be done" (Gore, 1993, cited by MacNaughton 2005, 30).

From Foucault's work, Gore (1998, cited by MacNaughton 2005, 30-31). identified the following five "micropractices of power." These micropractices maybe utilized "to analyze how an individual's daily practices and bring to life a regime of truth in a specific field, such as early childhood studies" (MacNaughton 2005, 30).

Surveillance: being - or expecting to be - closely observed and supervised in and through reference to particular truths.

Normalisation: comparing, invoking, requiring, are conforming to a standard that expresses a particular truths about, for example the developing child.

Exclusion: using truths to establish the boundaries over what is normal, to include or exclude particular ways of being as desirable on desirable and, in doing so, to define pathology..

Classification: using truths to differentiate between groups or individuals.

Distribution: using specific one truths to decide how to arrange and right people in space one.

Individualization: Using truths to separate individuals.

Totalisation: using truths to produce a will to confirm. (Regulation: using specific truths to control ways of thinking and being by invoking rules and limiting behaviours - often through sanctions of rewards Gore, 1998, cited by MacNaughton 2005, 31).

According to Foucault, truth constitutes an "art of government" (Gore, 1993, 56, cited by MacNaughton 2005, 32). He understood "government," in a sense, as "techniques and procedures for directing human behaviour" (Foucault in translation in Rainbow 1994/1997, 81, cited by MacNaughton 2005, 31). As one truth dominates over another, according to Foucault (1977c, cited by MacNaughton 2005, 36), "as one truth accumulates official sanction, others become marginalised and/or silenced."

According to Foucault, this process denotes a… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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