Corporate Governance Two Different Research Paper

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Hernon & Nitecki note the many challenges of writing about quality because everyone has it defined differently (2001). Quality has encompassed everything from quality collections, organizational quality, continuous quality improvement, and total quality improvement.

Customers that share information about their expectations create a unique opportunity for small businesses to provide unique services to them. Some small businesses measure because the parent institutions, such as universities, corporations, government agencies and school boards, have made commitment to be accountable to customers and compete for loyalty (Thomas & Robson, 2004 ). Service quality provides a way to improve their ability to meeting their mission of serving users regardless of external pressures. Attention to service quality enables an organization to develop a partnership with its customers while gaining a competitive edge (Hernon & Nitecki, 2001). As problems are identified, the necessary feedback serves as an opportunity for improvement and means to increase customer service satisfaction with services.

Service quality has been defined from at least four perspectives including: excellence, value, conformance to specifications, and meeting and/or exceeding expectations (Hernon & Nitecki, 2001). In some instances, authors have equated or confused quality with satisfaction (Mathaisel, 2000).

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Economic forces have a drastic impact on colleges and universities. Declining public tax support and budget freezes have created difficulty in improving the skills of students and grasping the intellectual complexity of the environments (Thomas & Robson, 2004). In this paper, all marketing trends will be studied from the perspective of the consumer behavior models. The reason for this is that the corporate governance changes have made the customers the key players in all marketing strategies so understanding them will help us understand the change in the marketing trends.

Research Paper on Corporate Governance Two Different, Yet Assignment

The General Consumer Behavior Model

The broad field of consumer behavior, within the field of marketing, which has gradually moved on to develop some of the most complex and dynamic models, started with a very limited and shallow baseline. While, consumer behavior has been under observation for a very long time, majority of the consumer behavior and psychological models that had been conceptualized, in the initial stages, did not provide a comprehensive account of their decision making processes. As research on this study moved on and started to spread from one dimension to another, the models being developed reflected some diversity insofar as the number of variables being taken into account is concerned. As Kover (1967) notes "All models have one thing in common: they describe some basic behaviors, needs or situations and make the assumption that 'this is really what man is like'. Then, the particular study builds on this model and usually ignores behavior not included in the model (p. 129)."

The consumer behavior models, developed by marketers in the early stages, lacked internal coherence and strong theoretical foundations Several research studies, developed early in the business-to-business marketing field, have concentrated on antecedents and costs of market relationships, recognizing cognitive, emotional, as well as, behavioral concepts (trust, satisfaction, loyalty as well as collaboration) that meet the requirements of the relationship life cycle, from consumer satisfaction up to consumer faithfulness and affiliation. During the initial years of research on consumer behavior, the models that had been developed usually lacked empirical evidence and proof, which made those models nothing but a set of different variables assumed to influence consumer behavior and decision making process. Through research, it has been revealed that these early models of consumer behavior had been drawn from evaluations of results of various marketing activities. Leavitt (1961) measured the effectiveness of models developed during the initial years and he notes that majority of the models had been developed from "folk wisdom" of various marketing campaigns.

As research on consumer behavior enhanced the understanding of the internal processes, the models depicting consumer behavior also developed a relatively realistic picture. Many theorists came forward and proposed various consumer behavior models, for instance, Lavidge and Steiner (1961) anticipated, and Palda (1966) crafted, a "hierarchy of effects" model of consumer behavior (see below).

Likewise, another well-known model had been designed by McGuire (1969) and called it, "information processing model of advertising effectiveness." It is worth noting here that while these models had been a step ahead in describing consumer behavior for marketers, they clearly had a one-way flow of influence and persuasion.

Recently, competitive and economic benefits originating from the intensification of consumer relationships have been extensively evaluated and conferred by marketing experts and scholars in the relationship marketing and have been able to propose several dynamic consumer models in their research fields. Michman et al. (2003) summarized several useful consumer behavior models. Two of the most prominent have been the choice model and the judgment model. The choice model moves towards the information processing and decision making of customers as of a wide-ranging problem solving point-of-view, at the same time, the judgment model moves towards consumer behavior as of a restricted decision making point-of-view which concentrates on particular features of information assessment ('judgment') only. Likewise, Ratneshwar et al. (2000) proposed an integrative structure that tackles the hierarchical formation of consumer goals as well as the procedures through which goals are gauged. Their six-stage model of consumer goal structure stretches the spheres of being, doing, as well as, having.

Other consumer behavior models that have been proposed over the years have been of narrow focus where people attempt to move towards desired end-states and evade undesired end-states (Carver and Sheier 1981; Michman, et al., 2003). Several self-regulation models have been derived, which involve contrasting current states to end-states. Cybernetic-control models (e.g. Carver and Sheier 1981), achievement motivation models (e.g. McClelland et al. 1948), implementation models (see Ratneshwar et al., 2000), personality models (Higgins 1998), give emphasis to the significance of movement in the direction of desired end-states (approach) and movement away from undesired end-states (avoidance).

Figure 1: JOHNSON AND MULLEN (1990) CONSUMER BEHAVIOR MODEL

Stimulus

Situation

Perception

(Awareness)

Emotion

(Feeling)

Motivation

(Desire)

Cognition and Memory

(Belief and Remembrance)

Learning

(Association)

Intention

Behavior

The consumer behavior model starts with a "stimulus situation," which influences the consumer (Johnson and Mullen 1990, p, 12). The "stimulus situation" is the compound of circumstances that jointly proceed as a stimulus to extract reactions from the consumer. This proposes that consumer behavior is not characteristically considered as being deduced by a solo stimulus. Instead, consumer behavior is measured to be the outcome of patterns or groups of stimuli (Johnson and Mullen 1990, p, 12).

References

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Hernon, P. And Altman, E. (1996). Service Quality in Academic Libraries. Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1996, p. 142.

Hernon, P., & Nitecki, D.A. (2001). Service Quality: A Concept not Fully Explored. Library Trends. 49 (4), 687-708.

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McClelland D.C., & Atkinson J.W. ( 1948). "The projective expression of needs: In the effects of different intensities of the hunger drive on perception." Journal of Psychol-ogy, 25,205-232.

McGuire, W.J. (1969). An information processing model of advertising… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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