Cosmetic Surgery Teenagers in the US Term Paper

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Term Paper on Cosmetic Surgery Teenagers in the US Assignment

The cosmetic enhancement is widely popular in United States. In United States, the people have expressed their annoyance with their inherited physical features. In 2001 a survey was conducted to estimate the concentration of the people interested in cosmetic surgery, more than fifty percent women and forty percent men expressed their dissatisfaction with their inherited appearance and physical features. The data gathered by American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery has revealed that, "cosmetic procedures i.e. surgical and non-surgical performed by plastic surgeons, dermatologists and otolaryngologists increased 119% between 1997 and 1999" (Philips, 2001). The survey further stated that, "more than 4.6 million such procedures were performed, with the top five being chemical peels i.e. 18.3% of the total, botulinum toxin a injection i.e. 10.8% of the total, laser hair removal which was 10.5% of the entire cases, collagen injection i.e. 10.3% of the total, and sclera-therapy which was 9.0% of the total cases, Rhinoplasties were performed on 102,943 people i.e. 2.2% of the total number of procedures, and there were 100,203 facelifts, 191,583 breast augmentation procedures and 89-769 breast reductions" (Dufresne, 2001). Such procedures were facilitated by variety of different practitioners, including cosmetic physicians, dermatologists, and plastic surgeons. The majority of the people have preferred cosmetic interventions to feel good about their looks, "one would anticipate that cosmetically successful procedures would lead to enhanced self-esteem, mood, and social confidence" (Rankin, 1998). The patients expressed their satisfaction towards the adoption and results of the cosmetic surgery, "this was particularly the case for women undergoing reduction mammoplasty, domains of functioning showing improvement included self-worth, self-esteem, distress and shyness and quality of life" (Thompson, 2004). It is important to resolve the uncertainties related with the poor psychological outcomes, the uncertainties are based upon the "factors are associated with an unsatisfactory psychosocial outcome after cosmetic procedures" (Philips, 2001). The common factors related with the unsatisfactory outcomes include "being male, being young, suffering from depression or anxiety, and having a personality disorder." The analysts have proposed that the "nature and degree of surgical change is an important predictor of outcome, more extensive procedures i.e. rhinoplasty, breast augmentation are expected to result in serious body-image disturbance than restorative procedures i.e. face-lift, botulinum toxin a injection" (Veale, 2000).

Cosmetic Surgery: Critical Cases

Considering the example of Delise Stiles, she initially complained about her masculine looks. Delise is a therapist and captain in the Army Reserves, however the individual "morphed into a beauty queen after a slew of plastic surgery procedures, a brow lift, lower eye lift, mid-face lift, fat transfer to her lips and cheek folds, laser treatments for aging skin, tummy tuck, breast lift, liposuction of her inner thighs and dental procedures" (Veale, 2000). The purpose behind such cosmetic surgery is also to participate in different beauty show. According to reports, programs like the Swan, Extreme Makeover and I Want a Famous Face are widely popular among the masses, and these programs have fascinated people about their looks, therefore the majority of the people are more conscious about their looks and features. The psychologists have warned and expressed their apprehensions that such cosmetic changes and enhancement will be responsible for the psychological impact, the psychologists have warned about lasting psychological consequences. According to recent survey conducted in 2004, the number of cosmetic procedures has increased by forty percent. The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery has officially recorded 12 million cosmetic enhancement surgeries in 2004, "including nonsurgical procedures like Botox and surgical procedures like breast augmentation or liposuction" (Castle, 2004).

A survey was conducted by social worker Roberta Honigman and psychiatrists Katharine Phillips, MD, and David Castle, MD, to assess the psychological consequences of the cosmetic surgeries on the patients. The survey concluded that such enhancement schemes have been responsible for the "positive outcomes in patients, including improvements in body image and possibly a quality-of-life boost too" (Veale, 2000), however "several predictors of poor outcomes, especially for those who hold unrealistic expectations or have a history of depression and anxiety, patients who are dissatisfied with surgery may request repeat procedures or experience depression and adjustment problems, social isolation, family problems, self-destructive behaviors and anger toward the surgeon and his or her staff" (Philips, 2001). It has been observed that such cosmetic enhancement schemes have affected "patients' relationships, self-esteem and quality of life in the long-term" (Thompson, 2001), and critical issues related to "health and safety issues for women, children and families" have emerged. The issues are preamble to "fascinating issues for psychologists to look at from the cultural phenomena to the interpersonal phenomena to the mental health and self-esteem issues" (Castle, 2004).

Cosmetic Surgery: Research Analysis

The issues related to the cosmetic enhancement "will increasingly affect clinician psychologists, and the area will offer new roles for them, such as conducting pre- and post-surgical patient assessments; as the popularity of plastic surgery continues to grow, many psychologists likely already have or will encounter a patient that has thought about or undergone a cosmetic procedure," therefore "it will be increasingly important for psychologists to be able to talk with patients about their appearance concerns and what may make some one a good or bad candidate for cosmetic surgery" (Thompson, 2001). The situation will require the special focus of the psychologists to resolve the issues pertaining to the psychological impact of the cosmetic enhancement operations. According to the survey conducted by the Aesthetic Surgery Education and Research Foundation and the Center for Human Appearance at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, "ninety percent of patients reported satisfaction following their surgery, including improvements in their overall body image and the body feature altered, they also experienced less negative body image emotions in social situations" (Thompson, 2001). The critics have observed a link between plastic surgery and poor post-surgical outcomes for some patients, "particularly for those with a personality disorder, those who thought the surgery would save a relationship and those who held unrealistic expectations about the procedure" (Thompson, 2004). The worst consequences related to the failure or psychological stress of the cosmetic surgeries includes suicide attempts. The research conducted in 2001 by the National Cancer Institute concluded that "breast implants were four times more likely to commit suicide than other plastic surgery patients of the same age as the women who underwent breast implants" (Philips, 2001). The safety aspects of the cosmetic enhancement surgeries have been critical debate, "the Food and Drug Administration has denied the approval of silicone gel breast implants because of a lack of longitudinal research ensuring their safety" (Castle, 2004). Some of the researchers have concluded that the suicide rate is expected to be two to three times greater than the expected results; the research has observed "a causal relationship between breast implants and suicide. Some researchers speculate that some of the surgery recipients may hold unrealistic expectations of it or have certain personality characteristics that predispose them to suicide" (Thompson, 2004).

Cosmetic Surgery: Potent Disease

The people have expressed their interest towards cosmetic surgery for the preferential treatment which is offered to the social members having good looks and figures, "physically attractive people often receive preferential treatment and are perceived by others as more sociable, dominant, mentally healthy and intelligent than less attractive people" (Castle, 2004). The patients have responded poorly towards the cosmetic procedures, these patients have expected to inherit psychiatric disorder commonly known as Body Dysmorphic Disorder. The Body Dysmorphic Disorder is "characterized by a preoccupation with an objectively absent or minimal deformity that causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning" (Philips, 2001). The psychologists have explored several options to address the concerns of the patients, and to treat their psychological lapse, the clinical roles have been identified to support the cosmetic surgery patients, the plastic surgeons have been encouraged to conduct… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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