Questionnaire: Counseling Master Questionnaire

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[. . .] Additionally, the importance of theory is apparent because research does not place itself in a theoretical approach. Theory also offers substantial interpretive map of the territory it aims to explain. Into the bargain, theory also makes it possible to make various observations from productive links (McLeod, 2003, p. 179).

11) What are the conclusions of McLeod in relation to the critical issues of counseling research?

McLeod (2003) recognizes there are significant issues that may challenge counselors who conduct counseling research. However, he suggests that counseling research occupies an important role in the service of practice. Additionally, it is hard to predict how perfect counseling research may look like. Owing to the fact that counseling and psychotherapy are disciplinary processes that borrow from diverse disciplines, each of which provides different, but valuable concepts and research methods, it does not fall short of challenges. Therefore, readers of counseling research must realize that issues will always arise because different studies have different expressions and languages (McLeod, 2003, p.8).

12) What is the paradigm of the practitioner scientist?

The notion of paradigm is central to the work of Kuhn. A paradigm is a generally or universally recognized accomplishment, which offers model problems and subsequently offers solutions to a community of practitioners. Paradigms are models that assist scientists to know in which frameworks they operate. In addition, a scientific paradigm may comprise the whole apparatus or web knowledge employed by the members of a scientific community. The paradigm for this case is one that offers training (Crotty, 2005, p. 34-36).

13) What is the paradigm of the scientist's practitioner?

The concept of paradigms has successfully found its way and applied to the complex human systems. Additionally, as the knowledge of paradigms can only happen through training scientists within various societies, much of the knowledge of the "normal scientist" is complicated. Therefore, the scientist's practitioner paradigm is a model or approach that seeks to identify the motivations behind particular behaviors that are apparent by observing common-sense behaviors (Crotty, 2005, p. 34-36).

14) What are the steps of the scientific process?

The scientific method involves some steps that help in investigating an occurrence or any given research problem. However, as one advances in science, it is probable that one will come across many various ways of describing the scientific method. Although various versions will provide different steps, they all use a common basic process. Question is the first step where one identifies the problem. Research is the step where the investigator spends time observing and gathers data that may help in solving the question. Hypothesis is the stage where the investigator uses their critical thinking skills to offer an answer to the question.

In the experiment stage, the investigator provides a procedure to test the hypothesis, and the investigator will require to list materials used. In the fifth stage analyze, the investigator will look back the collected data and modify it if it is necessary. In the conclusion stage is where the investigator makes a statement in whether the experiment supports the hypotheses earlier developed. In the final stage communicate; the investigator will present their research to other people through pictures, videos and any other method (Hauser, 2009, p. 9).

15) Explain the ethical guidelines of research

Ethics are important when carrying out any research. Before undertaking any research, it is significant to stick to an ethical code of practice because research will involve people. The investigator will have to tell the participants the motive of research and ask for their permission. In addition, the investigator should debrief the participants at the end of research by telling them the purpose of the investigation and give them a chance to answer questions. The investigator will also ensure the participants' safety especially from shame, fright or physical harm. Another significant thing is to ensure confidentiality for participants and information obtained. In case the investigator needs to conceal some information, the deception rate should be very little, and should not result to any anguish. In addition, the investigator must make the participant's aware of their right to stop taking part in the study. Therefore, the participants must know of their right to withdraw from providing assistance in the study (Hauser, 2009, p. 49-52).

16) What are the six steps for evaluating research from Houser's perspective?

It is possible for investigators to include personal bias in a given study. Therefore, this will call or require evaluation in order to determine the authenticity of the study. Additionally, another issue that may call for evaluation is the concern of whether the text is comprehensive to establish the purpose of conducting a given study (Hauser, 2009, p. 69-72). The following questions will act as a guide to evaluate a given research:

a) Does the investigator provide a sufficient rationale for conducting the research?

b) So what? On the other hand, what significance will the study provide in counseling or education fields?

c) Is the research detailed and inclusive?

d) Does the investigator express any potential partiality in the study?

e) Are all significant concepts well defined by the investigator?

f) Does the investigator clearly explain prior techniques that are significant to understand the intention of conducting the research?

(17). Explain the five guideline steps and questions for evaluating the purpose statement

The purpose statement communicates the objective of the study in clear, brief and unambiguous terminologies. The purpose statement is an endeavor by the investigators to identify the intention of the study (Houser, 2009, p. 72-78). A typical example of a purpose statement is; the aim of this investigation is to establish the perceptions of the youth to drug testing models. The criterion of evaluating purpose statement is as follows:

1. The purpose statement should consist of variables in the research

2. The second question is: is it possible to identify the conducted study based on the purpose statement?

3. Thirdly, the purpose statement should identify the variables of interest and verify whether there is a clear identification of a research question.

4. The fourth guideline is central to the population of interest, whether the purpose statement identifies the population.

5. Finally, determine whether the purpose statement identifies a researchable purpose

(18).Explain the six guideline steps and questions for evaluating the hypothesis

The hypothesis is provisional statements of the expected correlation between the variables in a given study. For instance, there is a substantial relationship between self-concept and achievement in mathematics. Many researchers use the hypothesis because it allows for testing of correlations between variables and it assists in directing the research. In addition, hypotheses are of several types such as inductive and deductive, and research or statistical (Houser, 2009, p. 84-88). The criterion of evaluating the hypothesis is as follows:

1. Check whether stating of hypothesis is in a declarative form

2. Verify whether the hypotheses is consistent with factual information before the study

3. Identify whether it represents the logical extension of the research problem

4. Verify whether the hypotheses states the expected relationship between the variables in a given study

5. Determine whether it is possible to test the hypotheses

6. Verify whether the hypothesis is clear and brief

19).What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative research?

Qualitative and quantitative researches are the major categories of research. However, there are several differences between qualitative and quantitative research. Quantitative research has a close alignment with the classical scientific paradigm. It involves collecting absolute data such as numerical data, to allow for examination in unbiased manner. In addition, there are numerous principles that go along with this type of research, which assist in promoting neutrality. Additionally, quantitative research comes later in the research study after understanding the scope of the study (McLeod, 2003, p. 72-73).

On the other hand, qualitative research is subjective, whereby, the research allows investigators to introduce their bias to assist then form a complete picture. This type of research is necessary in cases where the research problem is not clear and the investigator has the responsibility to determine the appropriate data. While quantitative research the investigator knows the research problem, in qualitative research the objective of the study may become evident as time passes (McLeod, 2003, p. 72-73).

20. Explain positivism

Positivism is a philosophy put forward by Auguste Comte, which suggested that the only authentic knowledge comes from science, and achieved only from positive affirmation of theories via stern scientific knowledge. He developed this philosophy after seeing the replacement of metaphysics by scientific techniques in the history of thought, and the observation of circular dependence of theory and subsequent observation in scientific methods. Additionally, positivism is the most advanced phase of society in anthropology evolutionism. In addition, positivism relies on the assumption that it is possible to observe the social life and develop reliable and valid knowledge about how it functions. The knowledge can further help… [END OF PREVIEW]

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