Counselors Need to Study Ethics Questionnaire

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¶ … counselors need to study ethics in relation to research? (Hauser, p. 87)

Just like in other fields including medicine, nursing, engineering and much other, counseling research also involves the observation of ethics. Ethics in research is very significant to any investigator regardless of their fields of study. Therefore, the study of ethics in research is very important. Counselors need it to establish how ethical their procedures when they conduct counseling research. In addition, the study of ethics will make them aware of federal laws, which protect humanity against some types of researches, especially those that have potential harm to the human beings. The study of ethics introduces counselors to achieve their objectives concerning a particular study because they have gained the public trust. The standards provided will promote the aims of the study, such as knowledge, truth, and accuracy.

Briefly describe the "inverted triangle" to explain ethics in counseling research (Hauser, p. 88)

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Hauser (2009, p. 88) suggests that, when considering ethical issues in counseling research is by conceptualizing the guidelines provided in the form of an inverted triangle. The top of the triangle represents the ethical theories, which include utilitarianism and deontological. The theories may address the degree of ambiguity when it comes to making decisions. In the second level, it comprises of principles such as autonomy, non-maleficence and many others. The principles provide for clearer interpretation as compared to the theories. The principles do not have the capacity to address similar situations simultaneously. The third level represents the professional codes of ethics, which include American Psychological Association (APA), and American Counseling Association (ACA). Finally, at the bottom of the triangle, comprise of the laws and federal regulations.

3) Explain:

Questionnaire on Counselors Need to Study Ethics Assignment

a) Autonomy: According to Hauser (2009, p. 89), autonomy is concerned with the notion of self-rule and self-choice. He further states that self-choice includes the full disclosure of information, which assists counseling researchers to make an informed choice. In simple terms, this principle centers around the freedom a client has to choose their own course of action, including what they want to do and what they choose.

b) Nonmaleficence: According to Hauser (2009, p. 89), nonmaleficence is the complementary to beneficence and it involves not doing unintentional harm. In other words, it literally means, "doing no harm." This suggests that counselors should refrain from providing ineffective procedures or therapies towards their clients. However, this principle may offer little guidance to counselors because many beneficial therapies may also come with severe risks.

c) Beneficence: According to Hauser (2009, p. 89), beneficence is the act of doing something, which aims at preventing or removing harm from others. Hauser states that it is doing what is best for another individual, or looking out for other individuals. This suggests that counselors should refrain from causing harm; they also have the responsibility to assist their clients.

d) Justice: According to Hauser (2009, p. 89), justice is the act of distributing resources in a fair manner. This involves sharing equally, or giving equal quantities of resources to every individual. In addition, this principle implies fairness. This principle is based on the assumption that all people are equal, and equals should be treated as equals. Owing to the limited amount of goods in any society, there is a likelihood of arising conflicts between the dwellers. Therefore, treating people as equals will help in resolving potential conflicts between people, or participants in a research.

e) Fair distribution: (Hauser, p. 88-89, 91), fair distribution is the concept behind justice. This refers to the equal distribution of resources, meaning that every individual receives the equal amount of resources without bias, or prejudice. In respect to the definition of justice, fair distribution should be based on the assumption that all people are equals. This means that equals should receive equal amount of resources; this is what Hauser suggests is fair distribution.

4) Define the utilitarian and deontological approaches for ethical decision-making (Hauser, p. 89)

In the study of ethics, the theories and principles are the basis of ethical evaluations is central to the acquiring of guidance, and further to making a decision. In addition, each theory stresses various points such as predicting the results in order to make an ethical decision. Some of the goals that ethical theories try to accomplish include beneficence, autonomy, and justice in order to make a decision. There are two ethical theories or approaches used in making ethical decisions. They include deontology and utilitarian.

The deontological approach suggests that adherence to obligations is important when evaluating ethical dilemmas. This means that people should follow their obligations because maintaining this is ethically correct. In addition, the approach will help in making decisions as outlined above. When people uphold their duties or obligations, they will make ethically correct decisions. On the other hand, utilitarianism is central to the capacity to predict the results of an action. According to this approach, the choice or decision that brings about many benefits or advantages is ethically correct.

5) What areas does the ACA code of ethics addresses in relation to research? (Hauser, p. 89)

American Counseling Association (ACA) is one of the professional codes of ethics. Every guideline, provided by the professional codes of ethics has their particular areas, where they can address or apply. The ethical codes for the ACA applies in the following areas in counseling research: (a) the counselors responsibilities in respect to research, (b) the significance of informed consent, (c) reporting the outcomes or the results from the research, and (d) addresses the issues, associated with publication. A typical example is the requirement of using clear and understandable language, when the counselors seek informed consent from their potential participants. However, there are exceptions, which include the use of deception in a given study. Nevertheless, deception comes in if there are no other methods available.

6) What is an IRB? (Hauser, p. 89)

An IRB refers to a formally established institutional body. The body is responsible for providing ethical guides, which address specific procedures that aim at protecting human subjects used as participants in a study. In addition, it provides the laws, which require counseling investigators who are associated with institutions that receive federal funds, but before receiving the funds, their studies must undergo comprehensive review by peers before conducting the study. The IRB also provides the guidelines, which should apply when reviewing research proposals. The guidelines include the need for an informed consent, the assessment of risks and benefits, and confidentiality. The IRB also is responsible for evaluating the risks to determine their relevance in respect to the anticipated benefits.

7) What is the difference between research and consumer in relation to their ethical responsibly when it comes to analyzed order research? (Hauser, p. 90-91)

There are several approaches developed that may assist in interpreting ethical issues in counseling research, however, it is not known, which methods are most appropriate for the consumer of research. Researchers or investigators are more concerned or aim at protecting the human subjects they utilize in their studies; this means that federal guidelines and professional standards addressing protection of human subjects are the most considered. On the other hand, the consumers of these studies are more concerned in the ethics of the studies, which focuses on the interpretation of the outcomes, and the implications for those whom they offer services as application of their professions.

Consumers, therefore, aim to determine whether the result from a given study has potential harm to the population. If it lacks potential harm, then they consider the study as ethically fit for consumption, or they can utilize it in their practices. The consumers also aim at establishing the benefits coming with the studies, or study. If the study has potential benefits, then the consumers can utilize the study in providing counseling or educational services to their clients or other consumers. In addition, the consumers aim to establish the fairness and justice applied in the particular research. Therefore, they establish the representation of the sample used and determine whether it was fairly represented.

8) How does Gostin define "population research"? (Hauser, p. 90)

According to Hauser (2009, p. 90) Gostin suggested guidelines, which investigators should consider when conducting and research regarding populations ("population research"). Gostin defines "population research," as "…..all the research and practice, performed on, or which influences groups of people or populations' (p. 90). In addition, Gostin connected the employment of ethical guidelines to populations and stated:

"Ethical principles applied to larger groups of people or populations are designed to protect the human dignity, integrity, self-determination, confidentiality, rights, and health of populations and the people comprising them. The kinds of social groupings encompassed in this definition include communities, cultures, social orders and other minorities" (p. 90).

9) How does Gostin link the application of ethical principles to populations? (Hauser, p. 90-91)

Applications of ethical guidelines apply to populations, and the guidelines main objective is to protect human dignity, health of populations and the people who comprise the populations. The population may further include… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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