Term Paper: Creswell ), Chapter

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¶ … Creswell (2013), Chapter 4

What is the background for each approach (narrative study, a phenomenology, a grounded theory, ethnography, and a case study)?

Narrative research may refer to the subject matter, or the technique used in a study. Additionally, narrative research may refer to the particular qualitative design in which "narrative is understood as a spoken or written text giving an account of an event/action or series of events, chronologically connected (Creswell, 2013 p. 70)." Narrative research originated from literature, history, anthropology, sociology, sociolinguistics and education. Whereas narrative research reports on stories from experiences of single individuals or several people, a phenomenological research describes the general meaning for several people concerning their experiences of a concept (p. 76). Additionally, phenomenologist's aims at describing the common attribute participants have when they experience a happening.

In the same context, investigators identify a phenomenon as an "object" of human experience (p. 76). In addition, phenomenology draws heavily from Edmund Husserl mathematical writings. It is popular in social and health sciences such as sociology and nursing (p. 77). Grounded theory studies focus on producing or discovering new theories, "a unified theoretical explanation" (p. 83), and establishment of a new theory will play a significant by providing a framework for further studies. Additionally, grounded theory constitute of a qualitative research design, developed in sociology (p. 83). On the other hand, ethnography focuses on a large culture-sharing group.

Although sometimes the cultural group may be small, it is typically large because it involves numerous people living together and interacts over time. Therefore, ethnography constitutes a qualitative design where the researcher aims to describe and interpret the learned behavior patterns including beliefs and language of the group (p. 90). This approach originated from comparative cultural anthropology, which scholars such as Boas, Malinowski and Mead conducted during the 20th century (p. 91). In ethnography, one can use the culture-sharing group as a case, which one wants to understand or explore the issue using the culture-sharing group as the case (p. 97). Case study research involves an investigation of a case in a real life setting (p. 97). Case studies are popular in psychology, medicine, law and political science. In addition, it has a long history in modern science case studies through anthropology and sociology (p. 97).

2) What are the central defining features of each approach?

An overview of numerous narrative articles makes apparent some unique features, which define the studies. They include stories from individuals, stories narrating individual experiences, revelation of identities of individuals (p. 71), and numerous data collection methods, chronological order of stories, and narrative stories can happen in a particular place (p. 72). Unique features are also apparent in phenomenological studies. There is emphasis on the phenomenon to explore (78), exploration of the phenomenon involves experts, philosophical discussions on how to conduct the study, revelation of personal experiences with the phenomenon, interviewing as the primary data collection method, systematic procedures to evaluate information and the study ends with a summary of the importance of the experiences for people (p. 79). For grounded theory, uniqueness is apparent because the investigator focuses on an event that has distinct phases that happen over time (p. 85).

The focus is to develop a theory; interviewing is the main form of data collection and data analysis may follow the model of establishing open categories (p. 85). Ethnographies focus on creating complete descriptions of the culture of a group. The investigator also aims to establish patterns of social organization, which relies on the intactness of the group. It utilizes theory to find social organization patterns (p. 92). On the other hand, a case study begins with identifying a case. The intention of investigating the case is important and the investigator chooses how to analyze the data (p. 98).

3) What various forms can a study take within each approach?

A narrative study can take different forms including biographical study, autoethnography, a life history and an oral history (p. 72-73). Some approaches in phenomenology include hermeneutic phenomenology, empirical, transcendental or psychology phenomenology (p. 79). In grounded theory studies, there are two popular approaches, which include the systematic procedures of Strauss and Curbin, and the constructivist approach of Charmaz (p. 86). In ethnographic studies, there are numerous approaches, which include confessional ethnography, life history, auto-ethnography, feminist ethnography, ethnographic novels and visual ethnography (93). Case studies also take different forms distinguished by the size of the given case, or the intent of the case evaluation. The approaches include the single instrument case study, collective or multiple case studies and the intrinsic case study (p. 99).

4) What are the procedures for using the approach?

Narrative Study (p. 73-75)

Establish whether the question fits narrative research

Select individuals' who have life experiences or stories to share

Consider the data collection methods

Collect relevant information from the shared stories

Evaluate the stories

Involving the participants in the research

Phenomenological research (p. 80-82)

Examine whether the question fits a phenomenological approach

Establish a phenomenon of interest to investigate

Recognition of philosophical assumptions in phenomenology research

Collecting data from participants using interviews

Asking participants two broad general questions, i) what have you experienced in terms of the phenomenon? ii) Which situations have influenced your experiences of the phenomenon?

Analysis of data

Writing a description on the experiences of the participants

Writing on the significance of the phenomenon

Grounded theory research (p. 88-89)

Determining whether the approach fits the study

Asking participants questions to understand whether the participants identify the steps in the process

Data analysis

Assembling of data to identify the core phenomenon

Developing hypothesis to state the predicted outcomes

Ethnographic (p. 94-95)

Determine whether it is the best approach for the given study

Identify a culture-sharing group to investigate

Identify cultural themes to study concerning the cultural group

Determine the form of ethnography to utilize in studying cultural concepts

Conduct a fieldwork to ascertain the setting, where the group works or lives

Case studies (p. 100-101)

Determine if the approach suites the given study

Identify the cases or case

Conduct an extensive data collection

Data analysis through holistic analysis or embedded analysis

Report the meaning of the case

5) What are challenges associated with each approach?

The narrative approach is challenging because the investigator must understand the participants extensively. In addition, the investigator must understand the participant's life, and have a keen eye to capture the personal experiences from the participants (p. 76). A phenomenological approach requires expert investigators and participants who understand some philosophical assumptions. However, finding such participants is difficult, and bracketing personal experiences is the most difficult task (p. 83). The challenges arising in grounded theory studies are because the investigator must set aside substantial ideas to create substantive theory.

In addition, the investigator faces a challenge in following the data analysis steps to realize when the theory is substantive (p. 90). The challenge in the ethnographic approach is that the investigator must have awareness on cultural anthropology, definition of social-cultural system, and concepts. In addition, it requires a lot of time to collect data because of its extensive nature (p. 96). Identifying the case is the greatest challenge in this approach (p. 101). This is because the term is extensive and requires other considerations. For instance, the investigator must consider the data collection methods, the case might be broad, and there are many forms of case study approaches (p.101).

6) What are some similarities and differences among the five approaches?

The five approaches have similar process of research, which begins with research problems, data analysis and research report. They also use the same data collection methods, and they have common designs. Notably, all the approaches have more than one form or they have numerous types. However, the approaches have substantial difference too (p. 102). All the approaches have a particular objective, which they aim to accomplish; this aspect differs from one approach to another. In addition, their origin differs greatly. For instance, grounded theory originates from sociology, ethnographic from anthropology. All the same, other approaches have extensive inter-disciplinary backgrounds (p. 103).

Part 2: Questions found on page 112 of Creswell (2013), Chapter 5

1) What is the focus in the sample narrative study?

The study involves the story of a Chinese immigrant student, and was chosen because she had the capacity to inform how ethnic identity is shaped by expectations from the teacher, home and school. Therefore, the primary focus of the researcher was to verify if the school, teachers and home had a contribution in shaping ethnic identity (p. 112-113).

2) What experience is examined in the sample phenomenological study?

The study utilizes a sample of people infected with AIDs. They used a framework, which suggested that patients had the capacity to solve their problems because behavior was a product of their cognitive and emotional reactions to health vulnerability. Patients developed illness representations, owing to their comprehension of the illness; on the other hand, the researchers used the images developed to understand and assist patients in their therapy, behaviors,… [END OF PREVIEW]

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