Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Term Paper

Pages: 10 (3201 words)  ·  Style: APA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Transportation

Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) refers to a multi-disciplinary approach to crime deterrence. CPTED relies on the ability to influence the decisions that occur just prior to commission of a criminal act. This concept typically occurs in the "built environment" rather than in real-world situations. This is due to the amount of control in this type of situation, as opposed to the variability that occurs outside of the built environment (Crowe, 2000). This research will examine implementation of CPTED concepts in a real-world setting. It will examine an implementation plan to utilize CPTED in the main terminal of the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. It will focus on project management issues and the process of implementation within the environment.

Elements of CPTED and the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport

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The Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport is considered to be one of the busiest airports in the world. Nearly 86 million travelers passed through this airport in 2005 (Economist.com, 2008). It has six terminals a, B, C, D and T. To serve domestic flights. Terminal E. serves international flights (Economist.com, 2008). A tram connects all terminals to a central atrium, which is home to ticketing, baggage claim, and a small food court. Security checkpoints cover all six terminals, therefore a traveler can commute between terminals to take advantage of the amenities that various terminals have to offer without passing through another checkpoint. Past the checkpoint, security is tight. However, in the atrium area prior to passage into other terminal areas, there is considerable room for improvement. This is the area that will be the target of CPTED makeovers.

TOPIC: Term Paper on Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Assignment

There are several critical elements that must be included in a CPTED design in order for it to be successful. The first is that there must be an element of natural surveillance. People will be less likely to commit crimes if they feel that they are being watched, and that ultimately a high likelihood exists that they will be caught. Natural surveillance is a part of building and grounds design, as well as the limited availability of potential escape routes. Closed-circuit Television (CCTV) cameras can be used in areas that are difficult to view from windows or other areas of the grounds. They can be used to monitor areas that are hidden from normal view.

The airport already has CCTV installed in critical areas. However, there are still many areas that are uncovered, and with the high volume of traffic that the airport handles, there is still plenty of opportunity for criminals to target their prey. The first feature that one notices about the airport is its open structure in the main terminal. The area boasts 45 football fields of space in this area (Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport, 2007). This much open space creates an almost direct escape route for the would-be luggage snatcher to grab and get a good running start. It may be more beneficial to divide the area up into smaller, more specialized areas that can be easily controlled.

Major renovations in the access point and screening procedures at the terminal gates were the result of new regulations to reduce potential terrorist activity, such as that experienced during 9/11 ("

Travel Security Update," 2007). However, these measures targeted the prevention of terrorist attacks past the checkpoint. They did not focus on the petty crime that occurs in the main area, but that does not pose a national threat to security ("

Travel Security Update," 2007).

The main atrium is ripe for petty, single incident crime against unsuspecting passengers. Redesigning the area into smaller areas with single point access, so that passengers and potential criminals can be screed before passing through the gates will help to reduce crime in these areas.

Large open access areas are a key draw for criminals looking for an easy-in/easy-out route. Maze entrances to restrooms, rather than double-entry doors help to prevent crimes in these areas, as they make the escape route trickier to maneuver (Crower, 2000). The airport has a security force that is readily visible, but they are generally located in areas that concentrate in screening passengers. They are not located at entrances to stores and restrooms. A heavier armed police presence in these areas would also increase the feeling that one is being watched (Crowe, 2000). This is a key element in CPTED design as well.

Increased definition of space that clearly delineates public space will play a key role in crime prevention and the ability to monitor areas more closely that is currently being done. The original design of the airport was supposed to provide the traveler with a sense of enormity and the ability to handle large volumes of passengers (City of Atlanta, 2008). This idea was excellent from the standpoint of the ability to move millions of people every year. However, from a crime prevention perspective, large open designs such as this also provide ample opportunities for criminals to have a direct escape route. They may also feel that they can easily blend into the crowd and move about unnoticed.

The goal of the main atrium re-design project will be to break up the space in such a manner that it can be more easily controlled, with fewer opportunities for criminals to have easy access leading them to parking areas and transportation. Redesigning the atrium area with the application of CPTED techniques will result in improved safety for all passengers, even those that do not pass through the security checkpoint. It will also help to prevent loss by shops and businesses in the atrium area.

Planning Stage

The planning stage of the airport re-design will involve a multidisciplinary approach that will include many persons that are considered low priority, in many architectural design processes. Rather than playing a minor role in the redesign process, security experts will add an important element to the design process. It is important to balance inaccessible escape routes and increased surveillance with the need to preserve passenger and their guests with a sense that they are not "being watched."

There are many shareholders that have a stake in the success of the airport redesign project. The most obvious shareholder, who will participate in the design process is the Office of the General Manager of the City of Atlanta's Department of Aviation. He will have final approval ability on the final design of the project, its implementation and continual monitoring once the building is complete.

The airport is a major asset for the City of Atlanta. It is the central hub that allows Atlanta businesses to connect with the rest of the country and with international destinations. Cargo and people depend on the airport to get them where they wish to go. The airport is often the only image that travelers will have of Atlanta. Many will pass through and will never see any part of the city outside of the airport terminal. Therefore, it is important that the airport presents a positive impression and serves as an ambassador for those that visit the city briefly.

Due to the importance of public image the Mayor's office, city developers, and many other public entities will have the ability to provide input into the final terminal design. Shop owners will have a stake in the success of the terminal redesign project. They will have the ability to participate via meetings specifically designed to keep them informed and to allow them to discuss their concerns and to provide feedback. Business owners within the concourse may feel that the design will have a positive or negative impact on their business. Ultimately, if they are dissatisfied, they may choose to move their businesses elsewhere. Although security is the key issue in the redesign, business owners still have an important role to play in the ongoing operations at the airport. There are many other minor stakeholders, but only the key stakeholders will have the opportunity to provide input.

The planning stage is the most important portion of the redesign process. The most important element is to make certain that all stakeholders have clear goals and intentions in the project. CPTED will be a major consideration in the design process, but it will have to be taken into consideration with all of the other elements that must be balanced in the project. The planning process will be a process of compromise among the various entities that have a stake in the success of the project.

There will be many unexpected events that take place in a project of this size. The General Contractor and Engineers will be the primary line of defense against these occurrences. Therefore, selection of these contractors will be critical to the success of the project. Special considerations will be given to the selection of these key project personnel. They will have to undergo extensive background checks and will have to provide references. Price will not be the key selection criteria for these personnel. They will have to have a clear focus and understanding of the project and the project goals before… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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