Criminal Justice and Criminology the Chicago Alternative Research Proposal

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¶ … Criminal Justice and Criminology

The Chicago alternative policing strategy came into effect in the year 1993. The strategy initially took place in five police district then moved to include the entire city. The need of this strategy was to revise the way police departments conducted their operation in the entire city. It is a long-term strategy where now police officers do have long-term duties in each of the 279 police units. The entire police squads in the city have training on problem solving techniques based on the steps formulated by CAPS. There are steps that any police officer needs to adhere to based on the strategy the processes are focusing on the victims, focus on the location of crime, attention given on offenders and attention given to problem solving efforts of the squad.

The policing strategy need to be supportive of the entire system in order to ensure city residents get their full services (Braga, 2005). Realization of community policing comes into perspective when the advisory committees and in beat meetings take place. Monthly meetings by the beat first took place in the five police experimental districts and became a regular phenomenon. Police department's advisory teams engaged the population in civic education in order to foster support of CAPS. The strategy in civil education includes the use of videos, brochures, television, radio, festivals, and countrywide rallies. These efforts towards implementation of CAPS aim at promoting public awareness and their participation to the strategy.

In the year 1993, CAPS implementation team composed of outreach workers, members of non-profit organizations and civilians. These teams provide assistance to beat teams and sustain meeting participation. CAPS office also supports court processes, help coordinate city services relating to CAPS, provide attorneys who work on gang and drug issues and conduct violation of code of conduct inspections. In addition, implementing problem-oriented policing into the law enforcement community requires a profound cultural shift amongst police departments. To accomplish this, officers must be convinced of POP's efficacy with data. Additionally, the principles of POP itself require amassing data about patterns of crime in various areas and conditions associated with the facilitation of crime.

However, as the literature review regarding empirical evidence on criminology research indicates, the accepted methodologies used within the discipline are highly contentious and can produce questionable results depending on the model adopted. Clinical experience models have the disadvantage of being anecdotal and relying upon possibly inaccurate folk wisdom while quantitative research results can be subject to logical errors in analysis, such as confusing correlation with causation. Despite its surge in popularity, the program faces dismissal and termed as a popular 'flavor of the month' in terms of its ability to prevent crime. Proponents call it a radical new strategy to improve day-to-day policing.

PROBLEM

Several police departments have implemented Problem-oriented policing (POP) in crime containment programs in a number of major metropolitan police departments in the United States and the United Kingdom. POP uses data-driven metrics to anticipate needed areas of crime prevention and containment. However, POP has been a controversial policy in many areas, and there has been tremendous organizational resistance in some areas to its full implementation. However, Chicago PD has embraced POP and used to cope with a wide variety of specific, crime-related issues.

LITERATURE REVIEW

According to Skogan (2006), CAPS awareness grew between the years 1996 to the year 1998. The awareness among the white population has reached a whole high of 80% while it is a belief that the percentage has grown continuously. By the end of the year 2002, 89% of the African-American population was aware of the strategy. The meetings of the team have a 60% percent attendance rate from adults within the city. Educated members of the public are more likely to know the meetings will take place as compared to those with less education. Homeowners and those residents with a long intention of staying in the neighborhoods tend to show interest in attending these meetings.

From observation, the African-American community have consistently attended meetings and participated in implementing CAP strategy as compared to other races. Researchers suggest that there are factors that have a bearing on the sustainability of beat meetings. One of those factors reflects the role of the community in the implementation of CAPS. This relates to the way information flows within the community and the level of encouragement given to the community to attend these meetings. The probability of getting information to the public concerning CAPS relates on the state of the infrastructure, the suitability of the method of transmitting information. The other factor relates to the involvement of activists.

Activists have been attending CAPS meetings on a frequent basis and their participation coupled with their involvement in educating communities boost CAPS meeting attendance. Attendance levels are highest where the needs of CAPS feature most. Attendance levels are high at places where there are poor schools, high level of criminal activities and in places where there is substandard housing. Meeting attendance are highest at places where there are concerns about the rising level of criminal activities, and where is other problems that need administrative attention. Beat meetings provide the community a chance to tender their problems, and through these meetings, communities are able to formulate strategies that help them face the said challenges.

Research further reveals that residents of these districts attend these meetings with the hope of expressing their problems freely, and need protection when they go back to their homes. Low attendance can also reflect concerns placed by people about attending beat meetings. Members of the public in Chicago fear getting involved in beat meeting because of the probability of retaliatory attacks from some elements within the neighborhood. Another reason for low attendance relates to police efforts and to the participation of activists in informing the public about CAPS strategies. Beat meetings provide the community a forum to communicate to the beat teams about their concerns on security, issues on drug circulation, and other problems. Information from beat meetings assists police units arrest drug traffickers; prevent crime from taking place and in designing policy.

However, DAC face frustrations on the way police handle matters discussed in these meetings; the team has found it difficult to translate those missions discussed into enforceable practice. It is not an exception that some of the issues tabled in these meetings need to be handled by a lower authority, but this does not mean that all information is irrelevant. These meetings should encourage public publication, but DAC meetings characteristics is a one-sided approach to information flow. Police seem to be the ultimate players in these meetings, and it seems that they ignore those contributions made by DAC when implementing policing strategies. CAPS evaluation on the quality of meetings provides a variety of details. Based on the observation made in the year 2002, these meetings have improved on a number of dimensions. These dimensions include model agendas, adoption of feasible procedures, Provision of training services for officers and in the distribution of information to the populations (Lipsey, 2006).

CAPS primary objective is to increase the confidence of the public in police operations within its districts. Researches indicate that public confidence opinions in the police improved between the year 1993 and 2000. Changes of opinions in the police have been prevalent a lot among the whites, Latinos, and Among the African-American communities in equal measure. In addition, a person of Chicago is content with their police than they were 10 years ago. From the research, there is an indication that Chicago police have always tried their best by their politeness, fairness and in showing concern for people's problems. People of Chicago believe that people within their neighborhood are receiving better treatment from the police. Over the years, there has been an increase in police responsiveness on the issues this residence face. Police have done dismally on matters concerning their performance, on how they control crime and in maintaining law and order.

Research indicates that, in Chicago, the level of crime rose in the year 1991, and the sharply went on a decline. Between the years, 1991 to 2002 violent crime rates had declined by 49% robbery had declined by 58%, murder by 30% and the property crime by 38%. Like in many other of the countries cities, ability of the police to solve murder related crime had decreased. Drug related shooting had been a crime that proved difficult for the police to counter. Over this period, rates and the battery had a declined by a 45% and 41% margin respectively. In property, related crimes motor- vehicle theft had declined by a 47% margin, and burglary declined by 51%. In comparison with other cities, Chicago had done well in fighting crime. "Decrease in crime in Chicago, was in parallel with other major states in America."

In-depth studies done in 2003 on Latino community on their involvement in policing provide credible information on participation in community policing, in Chicago. What led to this study are the report on… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Criminal Justice and Criminology the Chicago Alternative.  (2013, July 27).  Retrieved February 16, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/criminal-justice-criminology-chicago/6338493

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