Criminal Justice for Possible Outcome Essay

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[. . .] When a practice or program is believed a priori to be effective, it is challenging to obtain resources or support for trails that might dilute experimental effect in the name of science.

"Evidence and Liberty: The Promise of Experimental Criminology," by Lawrence W. Sherman (University of Cambridge, UK). I found this article to be of interest because found the tension between bottom-up and top-down policy guidance fascinating. And from the perspective of the local justice systems, it seems that operational guidance based on the review of experimental evidence would sit better -- giving a feeling of more control and the ability to make decisions for one's own community -- than a generalized policy based on a meta-analysis which, though the approach is empirically robust, would be likely to engender suspicion at the local level.

Snowball Sampling

To use a snowball sampling approach in a study of graffiti artists, I would begin by viewing and admiring graffiti and guerilla art in the community. I would make myself a participant in the context -- in the best tradition of ethnography -- such that I would gain the trust of the graffiti artists and guerilla artists as an admirer of their art. I would casually ask about the artists and let it be known that I wanted to meet them and ask them questions about their art.

An important part of this approach would be to establish a platform upon which I could legitimately rest my interest in the artists. That platform could be research or journalism or photography, or it could be economic -- as in, I am looking for someone to commission for some legally-rendered art work on a grand scale that has a distinct urban flavor. A key success indicator would be my ability to accomplish an endorsement from one of the graffiti artists or guerilla artists as a "safe" person who is truly interested in the artistic aspects of the art form and not the legal / illegal considerations.

Each click increases the sample size. This makes the distribution of sample means narrower -- this is the central limit theorem in action. When the clicks generate more samples, then we are dealing with the law of large numbers, which is what makes it possible to predict results for a large number of data points.

As the sample size is increased, the sample distribution becomes narrower. The size of the samples increases the closer the distribution of sample means approaches that of a normal distribution. This is true even when the population the sample is taken from does not have a normal distribution. According to the central limit theorem, a sampling distribution is less variable than the population from which it is taken -- variability is measured by standard deviation.

Source:

Criminal Justice Outcomes of Male Offenders in 14 Jurisdictions in the United States, 1985-1988

The population. Male offenders

The sampling frame.

"The jurisdictions to be surveyed were selected according to three criteria: (1) the inclusion of at least one site in each of the four major census regions, (2) the inclusion of approximately two sites per state, and (3) the inclusion of at least one site in New York City. Within each site, a random sample of armed robbery and residential burglary cases was selected."

The study population.

"The sampled incidents were drawn from two types of offenses: residential burglary and armed robbery. The collection includes only those incidents involving male offenders who were previously unknown to their victims and who were facing adjudication in adult court."

The observation unit.

The observation unit was criminal cases presented to a prosecutor and involving armed robbery or residential burglary between 1985 and 1988.

The sampling method.

The data was collected from intake logs and computerized records of court and other agency databases.

Source:

Homicides in Chicago, 1965-1995

The population. Chicago Police Department records

The sampling frame.

Victim-level event/transaction data and Offender-level event/transaction data

The study population. All homicides in the murder analysis files of the Chicago Police Department from 1965 through 1995

The observation unit. Individuals.

The sampling method. All homicides were included, but In cases where the offender data were completely missing in the victim-level data, no offender records were generated in the offender-level file. The… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Criminal Justice for Possible Outcome.  (2011, October 20).  Retrieved February 16, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/criminal-justice-possible-outcome/6992136

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"Criminal Justice for Possible Outcome."  Essaytown.com.  October 20, 2011.  Accessed February 16, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/criminal-justice-possible-outcome/6992136.