Essay: Criminal Offending

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[. . .] In such a case, the perceived unfairness and failure to accept the unfair sanction nullifies any deterrent effect produced by strong social bonds, and this means, the unfair sanction may have little or no influence on the future behavior of the offender (Leana & Nicole, 2008). For poorly bonded offenders who perceive sanctions to be unfair and accept the accompanying shame, the sanction will be irrelevant or possibly produce a deterrent outcome to future offending. On the other hand, the poorly bonded offender who denies the shame is likely to respond defiantly and engage in future criminal activities, because of unfair and stigmatizing sanctions. Therefore, the outcome of a sanction determines continuity or discontinuity of criminal activity in the future. In addition, defining the sanction as unfair and stigmatizing means that the offender is poorly bonded, and their acceptance of shame consequently reveals a likelihood of continued criminal offending in the future.

This theory is applicable in early lives of children to help the children understand wrongdoing. Parents can act like sanction agents, and children act as offenders since the sanctioning is like an interrogation. This will help children understand offense early. Defiance theory has proved to be a strong tool when analyzing social crimes like bullying among children. The theory is able to show the strength or weakness of the parent to children bonds. The theory makes it easy to understand the varying effects of sanctions on sanctioned behavior thus makes it easier to appreciate how family functioning correlates to children's problematic behaviors (Leana & Nicole, 2008). This theory can also help guardians and teachers to understand why children engage in some wrong doings such as bullying. This will make guardians enhance their students attitudes regarding the legitimacy of the sanctioning agent, and increase their ability to accept compliance and manage shame in adaptive ways. Guardians and teachers also should enhance their bonding with the children because good bond enhances compliance from the children.

Defiance theory is a good analytical tool that will help parents and teachers understand bullying behavior because it puts emphasis on several notions including bonding, shame management, and legitimate, respectful sanctioning conduct. The theory relies on the notion that punishment does not necessarily control offending. The aim of a legal system is to correct wrongdoers, by punishment, community work, or confinement (Leana & Nicole, 2008). The theory clearly implies that criminals deserve tolerance because punishment does not control offending. It implies that punishment plays a role in controlling criminal offending. Based on shame, this theory may end up slowing the legal processes because some offenders may fear confessing to crimes that they did to avoid shame. This theory cannot measure crime or even predict a crime. Using the bonding perspective, this theory may end up favoring some offenders if strong bond between offenders and the sanctioning agents.

DT and GST are just two among other theories, which have explained criminal offending. The two theories, GST and DT have explained criminal offending using different approaches to crime. Between the two, GST seems to have a succinct explanation because research has approved it though not worldwide. Researchers cannot say that DT does not prove anything, it does, and DT is applicable just that it involves a lot of analyzes and evaluation. Otherwise, DT is an important analytical tool (Ttofi, 2008). While GST uses strain to develop the theory, DT uses sanctions and perception to develop the theory. DT states that punishments do not necessarily control criminal offending while GST views punishment as an ingredient to inducing strain, which may institute crime. The two theories are of great importance for understanding criminal behaviors.

References

Broidy, L.M., (2001). A test of general strain theory. A Journal of Criminology, 39, 9-36.

Cesar, J.R., Nicole, L.P., Alex, R.P., & Stephen, G.T., (2010). Anticipated shaming and criminal offending. Journal of Criminal justice, 38, 988-997.

Inga, D.S., Alfgeir, L.K., & Robert, A. (2012). A comparative analysis of general strain theory.

Journal of Criminal Justice, 40, 117-127.

Kaufmann, J.M., (2008). A general strain theory of racial differences in criminal offending.

Australian & New Zealand journal of criminology, 41, 421.

Leana, A.B., & Nicole, L.P., (2010). A test of general strain theory. A Journal of Crime and Delinquency, 56, 227-252.

Leana, A.B., & Nicole, L.P., (2008). Defiance Theory and Life Course Explanations of Persistent Offending. A Journal of Crime and Delinquency, 56, 227-252.

Marie, D., (2010). Maori and criminal offending. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology (Australian Academic Press), 43, 282-300.

Moon, B., Hays, K., & Blurton, D., (2009). General strain theory, key strains, and deviance.

Journal of Criminal Justice, 37, 98-106.

Sherman, L.W. (2003). Defiance theory. Journal… [END OF PREVIEW]

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