Cuba and Eisenhower Term Paper

Pages: 22 (5783 words)  ·  Style: Chicago  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  File: .docx  ·  Topic: Literature - Latin-American

¶ … Eisenhower Administration & Cuba

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE EISENHOWER ADMINISTRATION & CUBA

The objective of this work is to research the political developments in Cuba during the Eisenhower administration relating to how the Eisenhower administration viewed and reacted to political developments in Cuba during the presidency of Dwight Eisenhower.Get full Download Microsoft Word File access
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Term Paper on Cuba and Eisenhower Assignment

There are those who state that the Eisenhower Administration was "businesslike" and that was comprised of a cabinet filled with successful corporate executives. Eisenhower's form of leadership was one that delegated responsibility, appearing as though he was not making key decisions and working only behind the scenes. The Domestic Policy of Eisenhower one a middle of the road policy balancing the freedom of the individual with the needs demanded in consideration of the whole nation as well. Eisenhower did not believe in intervention on a federal level of economic or social aspects and stressed the balancing of the budget. During the Eisenhower administration the welfare state experienced growth and social security was provisioned to 10 million more than previously and minimum wage was raised as well. The Department of Health, Education and Welfare was created and the polio vaccine was distributed. During the Eisenhower administration the highway system came into being along with the Interstate Highway and Defense System Act of 1956 with 42,000 miles of interstate funded through fuel and vehicle taxes. Job growth was stimulated as the trucking and automobile industries fought for laws and up sprang the fast food and motel industries which accelerated the growth of suburbs and a homogeneous national culture simultaneously. It was the fear of Eisenhower that defense spending of massive proportions would result in an unstable economy and development of a military industrial complex. He held that "every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired, signifies, in the final sense, a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold are not clothed." At this time in history the American people did not desire a large standing army and the strength of the United States military was nuclear weaponry centric focusing on planes and missile delivery systems. The call phrase was stated by Dulles to be "maximum deterrent at bearable cost."

This time in U.S. history was the birth of the Hydrogen Bomb in 1953 and by the year of 1961 the nuclear weapon stockpile for America had grown by four times with 72 Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles installed throughout the United States. By 1960 the Polaris Submarine with nuclear missiles was launched into duty and the creation of National Aeronautics and Space Administration happened simultaneously. The National Defense and Education Act was also enacted funding loans and scholarships for study applied in math, foreign language and the sciences. The Military Industrial Complex had expanded into a warfare state.

Stated as 'challenges to containment' are the factors inclusive of:

1) The CIA had authorized use of clandestine operations in the attempt to destabilize Guatemala's economy and for assistant provided for a coup.

2) Military Dictatorship in Cuba, or specifically Batista, was friendly with the U.S. owned United Fruit prior to his being placed into power. Meanwhile the United States Companies owned the mining, sugar and tobacco industries in Cuba. The Communists infiltrated into Cuba just as Fidel Castro came into power and the U.S. denied Castro's request for assistance leaving Castro turning to the Soviets. Castro made attempts to purchase corporations in Cuba that were U.S. owned and when thwarted nationalized the properties.

The relationship between the United States and Cuba changed under the leadership of Dwight Eisenhower for many reasons which include the fact that during the Eisenhower administration the United States had begun with a plot to overthrow Fidel Castro's leadership in Cuba. Fulgencio Batista was Cuba's leader in the form of a dictatorship from 1952 to 1959. The work of Rafael Escobar (2004) relates that: "In Batista, the United States was able to find a valuable puppet to protect its own interests. It was not until the 1952 coup d'etat that a change developed in America's perception and attitude toward Batista." (2004) There is documented evidence that the United States had supported Batista's attempts to gain power as early as 1933, following the exile of Cuba's first dictator, Gerardo Machado. (Ibid)

I. AMERICAN INTERESTS IN CUBA DEFINED

The work of Bevan Sewell entitled: "A Global Policy in a Regional Setting: The Eisenhower Administration & Latin American, 1953-54" argues that the Eisenhower administration had to separate objectives in Latin America which were those of "the extension of the UNITED STATES economic system and the development of Latin economic institutions along U.S.-prescribed lines" [and] "the eradication of any anti-American sentiment in the region (whether it was communist of nationalist) that could undermine the prestige and credibility of the United States political system, or which could be described as being a boost for the Soviet Union." (Sewell, 2006)

Sewell writes that the U.S. commitment in Latin American to the expansion of free trade and the extension of the American system "would be matched by the need to quell the rather vocal dissonance that the Latin nations were apt to broadcast. Although the Soviet Union did not offer a direct threat to Latin American, the growing level of anti-American sentiment certainly raised the possibility that the American system could be embarrassingly undermined by events in an area that had traditionally been a United States "sphere of influence." (Sewell, 2006) Further related as the administration in Washington went on with the attempt for expansion of the economic system and in the fight against revolutionary nationalism the officials in the administration "would increasingly seek to legitimize their approach to Congress and the American people through the use of stark Cold War imagery." (Sewell, 2006

Sewell (2006) points out the statement of David Ryan (2000) who states that:

It was easier to believe that the fundamental purpose of the nation was to defend freedom, or to promote democracy and self-determination against the communists, than it was to mobilize policy around the politics of materialism, economic access and integration. " (Ryan, p.148; as cited by Sewell, 2006)

The geo-political importance of Latin America and specifically the country of Cuba lay in the fact that it was so close in its physical geographic location to the United States. The Country of Cuba is a mere 90 miles across the ocean from the lowest tip of the United States mainland.

II. THE BACKGROUND OF DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER

The work entitled: "Dwight Eisenhower 1890-1969: Soldier, Supreme allied Commander in WWII, President of the United States" holds that Dwight Eisenhower was not only a "talented organizer" but also a "leader of men" who "commanded the largest military endeavor in history, the invasion of Europe (D0Day), and later went on to be President of the United States" serving two terms. Eisenhower came from humble beginnings descendent through a line of German immigrants. Furthermore his family was "deeply religious" attending church each Sunday and praying and reading from the bible daily in the Eisenhower home. Eisenhower originally had not thought of entering the service but was offered a West Point Academy scholarship. Eisenhower graduated and married in 1916 one year before the World War I began and entered into combat. He led a long military career and served as a staff officer during World War II maneuvers and was promoted to Brigadier General. Following Pearl Harbor Eisenhower was given an assignment to General Staff in Washington and rose to the position of Assistant Chief of Staff under General George C. Marshall. In 1943 Eisenhower was appointed Supreme Commander, Allied Expeditionary Forces and placed in command of Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy." (Nosotro, 2006) This is stated to be "possibly the largest military action ever attempted" with an invasion force that was comprised of 50 divisions or 150,000 troops plus the personnel that would maintenance and operation the bombers, fighters and ships in the thousands for the operation. In a letter sent to all of the U.S. troops prior to the commencement of D-Day Eisenhower wrote: "

Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen of the Allied Expeditionary Force! You are about to embark upon the Great Crusade, toward which we have striven these many months. The eyes of the world are upon you. The hopes and prayers of liberty-loving people everywhere march with you. In company with our brave Allies and brothers-in-arms on other Fronts, you will bring about the destruction of the German war machine, the elimination of Nazi tyranny over the oppressed peoples of Europe, and bring security to yourselves in a free world.... I have full confidence in your courage, devotion to duty and skill in battle. We will accept nothing less than full Victory! Good Luck! And let us all beseech the blessing of Almighty God upon this great and noble undertaking." (Nosotro, 2006)

III. THE BACKGROUND OF FIDEL CASTRO

October 1945 "matriculated into the University of Havana to study law. Unlike his previous experience in LaSalle and Belen, his skills as an athlete… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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