Term Paper: Cubism and Sculpture

Pages: 8 (2572 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Art  (general)  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] Artists like Picasso and Gauguin found formal ideas and images in the so-called primitive societies that resonated with energy and a new artistic rhythm.

Les Demoiselles D'Avignon is often invoked as the painting that started Cubism. A central aspect that the African mask motif created in Picasso's work was the challenge that it set up to ideas and normative perception of natural form.

The Negro sculptures radically abstract from natural forms: with their large noses protruding at sharp angles from the concave faces, they are the very opposite of everything Classical. Under their influence Picasso completely negated the natural form for the first time in the Demoiselles d'Avignon. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99010135" (Boeck and Sabartes 147)

The primitive or archaic conventions are startling in the painting; particularly if we study the two noses of the two central figures in Demoiselles d'Avignon and they are evidence of Cubism. They are drawn in profile upon frontal faces. This device was to become common in Cubism. An example of this is the upper head in the painting, which is foreshortened with a flat ridged nose, a sharp chin, small oval mouth and deleted ears; these are all characteristics of "Negro" masks. There are many other examples of these influences in Picasso's "Negro" period, including The Woman in Yellow.

It is also important to realize that Picasso did not see himself in any sense as a theorist and did not view Cubism as a body of intellectual knowledge prior to the actual experience of the work of art.

Picasso himself has defined Cubism as 'an art dealing primarily with forms, and when a form is realized, it is there to live its own life'. The aim is not to analyse a given subject: in the same statement Picasso disowned any idea of research, which he saw rather as 'the principal fault of modern art'. Cubism, he said, has kept itself within the limits and limitations of painting as always practised -- only the subjects painted might be different, 'as we have introduced into painting objects and forms that were formerly ignored'. But 'mathematics, trigonometry, chemistry, psychoanalysis, music and whatnot, have been related to Cubism to give it an easier interpretation. All this has been pure literature, not to say nonsense, which brought bad results, blinding people with theories'.

(Read 1959, 78)

Picasso created several wood carvings in 1907 that owe a direct debt to African masks and reflect the Cubist style of Les Demoiselles D'Avignon. He cast small bronzes such as Head of a Woman (1907) which reveals the development of the cubist style, which was simultaneously developing in his painting. A Greater degree of 'distortion' can be seen the Women's Head (1909).

In the following years he created a number of sculptural constructions that relate to the Cubist style, such as the sheet-metal and wire Guitar (1912, Museum of Modern Art, New York City) and the wooden Wineglass and Die (1914, estate of the artist).

Sculpture in the Twentieth century owes a great degree of to the original Cubism of Picasso and others who pioneered this style in the early year of the century. They succeeded in releasing sculpture from its reliance on traditional forms of expression and invigorated art to new heights of experimentation and growth.

Bibliography http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8134619

Archipenko, Alexander. 2000. In The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., edited by Lagasse, Paul. New York: Columbia University Press.

Boeck, Wilhelm, and Jaime Sabartes. Picasso. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1955.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=473556

Barr, Alfred H., ed. 1954. Masters of Modern Art. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Boeck, Wilhelm, and Jaime Sabartes. 1955. Picasso. New York: H.N. Abrams. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=78338892

Casson, Stanley. 1928. Some Modern Sculptors. London: Oxford University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33438443

Cassou, Jean, Emil Langui, and Nikolaus Pevsner. 1962. Gateway to the Twentieth Century: Art and Culture in a Changing World. New York: McGraw-Hill. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=74370572

Chilvers, Ian. 1998. A Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art. Oxford: Oxford University.

Cubism; Sculptural forms give shape to the birth of modern art. ARTS & TRAVEL, Sarasota Herald Tribune, May 12, 2002. www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=54855391

1996. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Art and Artists. Ed. Ian Chilvers. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001040466

Fitzhardinge, Jodi. 2001. Earth Fire Water Air: Anne Dangar's Letters to Grace Crowley 1930-1951. Journal of Australian Studies: 204. http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=54724426

Giedion-Welcker, Carola. 1960. Contemporary Sculpture: An Evolution in Volume and Space. Revised ed. New York: G. Wittenborn. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9102467

Golding, John. 1959. Cubism A History and an Analysis, 1907-1944. London: Faber and Faber Limited. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9767934

Haftmann, Werner, Alfred Hentzen, and William S. Lieberman. 1957. German Art of the Twentieth Century. Ed. Andrew Carnduff Ritchie. New York: Museum of Modern Art. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000986079

Papazian, Claudia. 2001. Picasso. In 3-D. School Arts, April, 32. http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=786516

Read, Herbert. 1959. A Concise History of Modern Painting. New York: Praeger. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000639663

Ries, Martin. 2002. Andre Masson: Surrealism and His Discontents. Art Journal 61, no. 4: 74+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=87800581

Rosenblum, Robert. 1961. Cubism and Twentieth-Century Art. New York: Abrams. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=7742208

Seitz, William C. 1961. The Art of Assemblage. New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=11735968

Selz, Jean. 1963. Modern Sculpture: Origins and Evolution. trans. Michelson, Annette. New York: G. Braziller. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97398230

Valentiner, W.R. 1946. Origins of Modern Sculpture. New York: Wittenborn. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=96426567

Wallach, Alan. 1992. The Museum of Modern Art: The Past's Future. Journal of Design History 5, no. 3: 207-215. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000491123

Wilson, William S. 1997. Picasso. Art Journal 56, no. 1: 88+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000423641

Wolter-Abele, Andrea. 1996. How Science and Technology Changed Art. History Today, November, 64+.

The term 'Cubism" was not initially adopted by the artists in question and it only later became a term to describe this style of art. [END OF PREVIEW]

Cubism Cubist Sculpture Term Paper

Cubism -- How it Shapes the Art Term Paper

Development of Cubism Term Paper

Picasso and Braque Cubism Research Paper

Picasso Cubism Culture Research Proposal

View 96 other related papers  >>

Cite This Term Paper:

APA Format

Cubism and Sculpture.  (2004, April 7).  Retrieved September 20, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/cubism-sculpture/6941965

MLA Format

"Cubism and Sculpture."  7 April 2004.  Web.  20 September 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/cubism-sculpture/6941965>.

Chicago Format

"Cubism and Sculpture."  Essaytown.com.  April 7, 2004.  Accessed September 20, 2019.