Essay: Culture What Is the Most Accurate Description

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What is the most accurate description of the relative importance of hunting vs. gathering in foraging societies in terms of nutrition? In terms of place in society?

The basic nutritional rule is that it takes more energy to get energy out of plant based, as opposed to animal based, foods. The caveat is that hunting and scavenging are not always 100% successful, whereas, gathering of plants, roots and other vegetative materials are fairly reliable. Foragers maintain their caloric needs by constantly collecting edible plants and grains, but it was not until the advent of focused agriculture that there were enough surpluses to allow for more permanent settlements. Foraging also required moving from place to place as resources ran out. To hunt and scavenge, though, requires that humans not only travel longer distances to find game, but they must also compete against other predators (sometimes dangerous) in the process. This being said, many scholars believe it was the extra nutrition and fats that occur in meat that allowed the human brain to develop more, as well as the idea of cooperation, memory (location, technique, etc.) of the hunt pushing the idea of being successful more often than not. A modern approach from Jared Diamond notes that it is the extreme amount of time and energy to develop nutrition from plant-based diets in some areas (Borneo, for example) that kept certain civilizations from developing more technologically -- it wasn't that they were not smart, it was that all their time was spent in finding enough to eat (Diamond, 2005;Park, 2010).

2.Larger societies include groups whose organization can be categorized as bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states. What type of organizational structure would you argue that the Hutterites fall under? Please explain your… [END OF PREVIEW]

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