Current Recession Thesis

Pages: 40 (11600 words)  ·  Style: APA  ·  Bibliography Sources: 25  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Black Studies

Recession and African-Americans in the Metropolitan Area

THE RECESSION AND African-AmericanS

IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA

"Researchers use the scholarly literature in a study to present results of similar studies, to relate the present study to an ongoing dialogue in the literature and to provide a framework for comparing results of a study with other studies"

John W. Creswell (2008, p. 45).

Even though the "literature" the researcher utilizes in literature review constitutes any collection of materials relating to a topic; not automatically the world's great literary texts, as Literature Reviews (2007) asserts, for this study's literature review, the researcher, as John W. Creswell (2008) notes in his book, In Research Design, primarily utilizes the scholarly literature for this segment's framework.

Along with serving as the study's framework, a comprehensive knowledge of the literature of the field proves vital as it provides a solid background for the examination of the study's focus. Literature Reviews (2007) purports that literature reviewed in a study may range from numerous government pamphlets to scholarly articles to any collection of materials on a topic. A review, this source stipulates, does not necessarily denote the researcher's personal opinion indicating whether he/she liked these sources. "A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period" (Literature Reviews, 2007, What is a literature... section, ¶ 1). In addition to serving to support a study, literature reviews also help inform the professional, and the scholar of current information in his/her field.

Some literature reviews simply summarize sources, albeit the traditional literature review generally follows an organizational pattern as it combines both summary and synthesis of reviewed literature. As the researcher recaps relevant information the reviewed source relates, he/she creates a synthesis by re-organizing, or reshuffling the retrieved information. The researcher may freshly interpret old material, or he/she may combine fresh material with old interpretations. The researcher may sketch the intellectual progression of the field or phenomenon, along with examining major debates/issues. In some instances, during the literature review, the researcher may evaluate the researched sources and recommend the most pertinent or relevant to the reader (Literature Reviews, 2007).

An academic research paper and a literature review include a number of identical and/or similar elements. One of the first decisions the researcher must make in crafting the literature review is to determine how to organize basic categories, as the chapter may be organized in the following ways:

1. In chronological order

4. By themes (Literature Reviews, 2007).

5. By methodological processes.

An effective literature search establishes that no other individual has previously undertaken the particular research endeavor the researcher determined to complete. "Journal articles and conference papers are significant in all subject areas. Books are still very significant in the publication of original research in the humanities and social sciences," (Literature searching, 2007) as in this dissertation. For this study's literature review, the researcher primarily utilizes journal articles; with additional support from a number of other credible sources. The researcher follows a thematic order to organize the information; drawing from the study's research questions, initially introduced in this study's Introduction. The research questions include the following primary question and three sub-questions:

How does the economic recession affect the Metropolitan Area African-Americans?

1. What economic obstacles affect African-Americans because of the recession?

2. How do the economic obstacles of African-Americans compare to those other African-Americans in Northern Virginia and the District of Columbia experience?

3. What practices can the Metropolitan government implement to address the economic obstacles challenging African-Americans during the recession?

The themes for this study's literature review, which include one additional theme, added to the three themes portrayed in the research questions include:

1. African-Americans

2. Economic Obstacles Affecting African-Americans

3. Specific Study Considerations

4. Metropolitan Government Practices

2.2: African-Americans

"Colored' was replaced by negro before 'black' and then 'African-American' became the label of choice"

- David George (2006).

The following excerpts for the Timeline (2008) section, presented by The History Makers, a national, non-profit educational institution, conveys a record of challenges the African-American has countered during the past 2000 plus years.

Jacques Constantin Deburque Born: Violinist and music teacher Jacques Constantin Deburque is born this year. He will go on to direct the orchestra at the Theatre de la Renaissance for the "free colored" in New Orleans, Louisiana.

January 2, 1800

Free African-Americans in Philadelphia Petition Congress: In Philadelphia, free African-Americans petition Congress to abolish slavery. The petition is defeated, and South Carolinian John Rutledge, Jr., comments that the request is one result of "this new fangled French philosophy of liberty and equality." The defeat does not stop the African-American community from taking action to garner freedom, even 150 years later.

May 10, 1800

U.S. Government Penalizes Those Working on Slave Ships: In an attempt to curb the foreign slave trade, the United States government passes a series of laws which harshly punish its citizens who voluntarily serve on slave traders.

August 3, 1800

Slave Uprising Begins: Gabriel Prosser begins a slave uprising in Richmond, Virginia on this date. Prosser led one-thousand slaves in a revolt to take over and seize the state capital. On August 30, 1800, the slave revolt was totally suppressed and all of Prosser's followers were executed by hanging

August 30, 1800

Slave Uprising Suppressed: Approximately one thousand slaves, led by Gabriele Prosser, attempt an uprising in Richmond, Virginia. The rebellion is seamlessly planned, but two slaves expose the plot to the plantation owner. The Federal Militia is brought in and the uprising is put down almost as soon as it begins. The insurgents, including Prosser, are hanged.

October 07, 1800

Gabriel Prosser Executed: Gabriel Prosser was hung on this date for leading a slave revolt near Richmond, Virginia.

March 10, 1810

Adelle v. Beauregard: A Louisiana court, in handing down its decision in Adelle v. Beauregard, declares that a "person of color" is free unless otherwise proven so. It distinguishes between persons of color and Africans, those who are slaves or have an African mother.

Boston Opens Public School for African-Americans: Boston, Massachusetts opens its first public school for African-American children.

U.S. Army Forbidden to Accept Blacks: Only a few short years after proving themselves in battle during the War of 1812, the U.S. Army is forbidden to accept either blacks or mulattoes into their ranks.

May 15, 1820

Slave Trade Declared Piracy: Working with the British, the U.S. Congress declares the foreign slave trade to be piracy, punishable by death. Four naval vessels are sent to patrol the western coast of Africa to hunt for slavers. After four years, the program is called off and the ships return to port.

September 20, 1830

First National Negro Convention Meets: The first National Negro Convention meets in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania convening delegates from Delaware, New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia to discuss the founding of a black college and an initiative to encourage blacks to immigrate to Canada. The conventions become extremely prevalent during the next three decades and serve as the organizational backbone of antebellum black political life.

September 18, 1850

Fugitive Slave Law Revised: The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 was passed with only four Congressmen voting against it. The law allowed for federal martials to be fined for not arresting runaway slave, resulting in numerous false arrests. A slave-owner had to do nothing but give testimony in order to claim an individual. This led to an increased call for violent resistance to slavery among blacks.

May 28, 1880

Benjamin O. Davis Sr. Born: Benjamin O. Davis, Sr. was born on this date in Washington, D.C. Davis was the first Black general in the U.S. Army.

March 30, 1870

Fifteenth Amendment Ratified: The United States Congress ratifies the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution. The amendment grants male suffrage regardless of "race, color or previous condition of servitude." This leads to a debate over women's suffrage.

May 31, 1870

Civil Rights Enforcement Act Passed: Congress passed the Civil Rights Enforcement Act on this date. This act recognized the equality of all men

February 01, 1960

Wave of Sit-ins Begin in Greensboro:

Four African-American North Carolina Tech State University freshmen occupy seats at a Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, North Carolina, after they were refused service. This event sparks a wave of nonviolent sit-ins that spreads throughout the country and results in the integration of seventeen school districts and countless public arenas.

May 06, 1960

Civil Rights Act Passed: President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs the Civil Rights Act of 1960, which acknowledges the federal government's responsibility to become involved in matters of civil rights. Specifically, the act levied penalties upon those who attempted to obstruct another from voting, and although the problems persisted, many realized the importance of the federal government reversing its long-standing "hands off" policy towards civil rights.

November 29, 1960

U.S. Census Reports that Black Population is Over Ten Percent: The U.S. Census reported that Blacks made up 10.6% of the U.S. population on this date.

January 02, 1970

FBI… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Current Recession.  (2009, May 14).  Retrieved December 11, 2018, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/current-recession/46505

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https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/current-recession/46505.