Curricular Leadership for the Inclusive Secondary School Term Paper

Pages: 9 (2404 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 7  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Teaching

Curricular Development and Design for the Inclusive Secondary School

The purpose of this study is to answer the questions of: (1) What curricular changes will we see in the next 10 years and why?; (2) What will be the content of curriculum in the next 10 years?; (3) What and who will influence content?; and (4) Who will be involved in its development and design?

Gudmund Hernes, Director of IIEP states that in higher education and universities subjects are "taught much the same...mathematics, biology, languages, history, economics. The theories presented and criticized, the notions expounded and challenged, the ideas used to make sense of the world - whether they are embodied in words like 'atoms' or galaxies' or algorithms' or 'syntax - are also similar." However, this is not so in most secondary education institutions and according to Hernes has to do with variations in secondary education and vocational training. In order to effectively address planning the requirement for broad knowledge and a potent imagination - the capacity to envisage possible futures and assess the effect of imagined actions is stated to exist Those who plan the curriculum in secondary education institutions are stated by Hernes to be assisted by research because of "the methods developed and findings documented..." And because "it presents actual modes of organization and structural traits, qualities and shortcomings different from those we already know. Sometimes sobering thoughts arise from vicarious experince. On other occasions, research leads to serendipitous discoveries." (2001)

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Included in the items of the agenda stated in the work of Hernes to be that of secondary education are:

1) Necessary curriculum revision for better quality and relevance;

2) Preparation of students to enter the work world;

3) Facilitation of access for students and retain students from disadvantaged groups; and (4) reduction of inequality in the education offered to different groups. (Hernes, 2001)

Term Paper on Curricular Leadership for the Inclusive Secondary School Assignment

Historically and traditionally curriculum development involved the entire staff of the schools system, "...under the leadership of administrators and curriculum consultants...organized into committees to develop goals, study problems, organize courses of study, and after a year or two of intensive work and study, produce the school program to be used for the next few years. Curriculum development was a "continuous, evolutionary process." (Hernes, 2001)


The work of Michaela Martin relates the fact that relationships between universities and industries "take on a variety of very different formats. At the one end of the spectrum higher education institutions may be linked to major high-tech corporations for multi-year joint R&D. At the other end, a small regional university may collaborate with a local company by providing technical assistance to upgrade existing low-level technology and management techniques, or by offering further education programs to upgrade professional competencies." (Martin, 2000) Martin additionally states that the level of development "and focus of such linkages depend on a number of conditions. These include in particular the research and teaching capacity both within the higher education institutions and industry..." (Martin, 2000)

Linkages between industries and universities have "a great potential to improve the relevance of teaching and research in universities, but this inherent dangers are also becoming more prominent. Within the context of current economic imperatives and impressive opportunities for individual and collective scientific entrepreneurship, university-industry linkages may provoke, in addition to the expected benefits, a number of unintended effects both in terms of the creation and dissemination of knowledge and the generation of income. These include: a possible distortion of research and training agendas, a potential diversion of energy and commitment of teaching staff interacting with industry away from traditional activities, particularly as regards undergraduate teaching, limited open communication and publication, growing internal fragmentation and conflicts of interest among the different groups within institutions or with public interest in general." (Martin, 2000)

Martin relates that only strict rules and regulations along with transparency in the linkages between industries and universities will properly address these challenges. The work entitled: "Alchemists of the Mind" published by the IIEP in May 2000, states that a global culture is one "based on common values" and that this 'global culture' is "gaining hold..." And "spreading to all countries by modern media. But this very globalization threatens the richness and variety of the human heritage - many human languages are disappearing. The homogenizing forces of modern technology and communication are enormous - oneness can produce sameness. For culture then, the effects are contradictory. The new technologies generate new disparities. Imbalances are aggravated when the most advanced nations develop most rapidly and set the new global standards others must follow, while those worst off remain stagnant or fall back. Inequities are increasing and inequalities are widening. In some cities of the world, the number of street children is growing; in others, the number of Internet cafes is sprouting. Indeed, sometimes both happen in the same city at the same time." (Ibid, 2000)

The work of the IIEP entitled: "Vocational Education and Training for Youth" published in December 2007 states that a major challenge for families and education authorities is the transition of youth from school to work. This report states that integration of youth in the workplace "is still faced with major policy challenges, including the provision of adequate quality post-primary education opportunities, overcoming obstacles such as costs, and diversifying learning pathways. Improving the employability of young people often involves strengthening school-enterprise linkages, providing out-of-school vocational training programs and offering career guidance and placement services." (2007) This report informs the study that technical and vocational education and training (TVET) is a primary item on the education policy agenda." (IIEP, 2007)

The work entitled: "Global Perspectives in Secondary Education" states that secondary education is viewed increasingly "as an educational imperative by countries around the world. Secondary education is now part of the compulsory years of schooling in many countries, a factor that has contributed to the increase in the number of young people participating at that level of education. In South America, the number of secondary students doubled between 1990 and 2002, and in East Asia participation rates were at 70 per cent in 2002, an increase from 44 per cent in 1990." (Motivans, Bruneforth, and Kennedy (2005).

The work of Tennant (2005) entitled: "Transition from primary to secondary schooling: valuing alternative literacies as a strategy for fostering academic success" relates that the transition of students:."..from primary to secondary school can be an unsettling experience for many students. It is also a time when many students are at risk of disengagement from learning. Further refining and developing skills that students already possess, by using activities, media and content that they find stimulating, is one way to build their confidence and self-esteem. According to Tennant, given students' favorable disposition to digital media, developing their digital, media and critical literacy skills might be one way to engage them in the curriculum and develop their self-esteem. Students should be taught to analyze, evaluate and make judgments about the media with which they engage, and an extension of this is helping them to develop a critical disposition and skills to evaluate websites and their content. Experiencing success through engagement with these alternative literacies will help to bridge the gap between primary and secondary school for many students." (Tennant, 2005)


Content in the curriculum in secondary schools over the next decade is likely to have two focuses, which are curriculum for students bound for college and curriculum for students bound for vocational and career training. These are often referred to as 'college-track' programs and 'career-track' programs of curriculum. The former prepares the student to enter college and in the initiative of earning a degree while the latter is a curriculum program designed to prepare the student for a career immediately following graduation from high school. Technology learning will be a primary focus in the content of secondary school curriculum over the next decade as practically all business processes and functions involve some type of technology knowledge. Even for students who will not attend college, technology training is important in their Preparation to enter the contemporary workforce.


Factors and forces in curriculum development are identified in the work entitled: "The Secondary School Curriculum" to include: (1) Social and educational philosophy; (2) Special interest groups; (3) business and industry; (4) the federal government; (5) state legislatures; (5) the teaching profession; (6) subject specialists; (7) textbook authors and test makers; (7) community influences; and (8) the teacher. These are only a few of those who will affect the development of curriculum in secondary schools over the next decade. There are variations in the individuals, agencies, corporations, governments, policies and agendas that affect curriculum development in secondary schools throughout the world.


Development and design of curriculum in schools over the next decade will be characterized by collaboration between schools, businesses, industry, community, and government in attempting to provide the best possible education for students in preparing them to… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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