Cyber Crime Purpose and Audience Organization Literature Review

Pages: 7 (3159 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 5  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Criminal Justice

Cyber Crime

Purpose & Audience

Organization of the Paper

Forms of Online Abuse and Crime

Social and Economic Impact of Online Crimes

Likely Victims of Cyber and Internet Scam

Youth

Elderly People

Financial Institutions

Government, Health Care, and Academic Organizations

The cybercrime classification framework (CCF) will help in making cybercrime language formal and the results of this framework will be consistent within specified jurisdictions & remain consistent around the globe. This type of framework will help the authorities worldwide to better communicate and cooperate between certain jurisdictions. This framework will also enhance compatibility between reporting agencies of international or national cybercrime, which will allow a very true representation of incidence of cybercrime to be accepted and realized throughout the globe.

By using CCF summarized in this article, Stabek et al. identified seven types of scams with 4 key processes of scammer business. This information can use specialized law enforcement agencies and cyber crime and fraud task force in its recognition, tracking and monitoring of cyber crime and contributions to the cyber crime investigation methods, the use of blend.Download full Download Microsoft Word File
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TOPIC: Literature Review on Cyber Crime Purpose & Audience Organization of Assignment

Victimization in society results from many types of harmful behaviors committed by individuals or groups against other people. Behaviors considered negligent or abusive, or that otherwise are considered criminal in a particular place, often depends on the amount of harm inflicted, the technological means employed, and existing laws that forbid specific activities. Technological means used to commit cyber crimes refers to a combination of networked systems, hardware devices, software tools, and methods that people use on the Internet. (Wall 2007) Modern information technology (it) hardware like computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), cellular phones, and gaming devices can be used offline (in standalone mode), online, or wirelessly, from private or public places, in ways that are not easily recognized as illegal and that transcend more the one geopolitical or legal jurisdiction. In addition, illicit use of computing devices can facilitate many forms of traditional in-person crimes.

Purpose & Audience

The purpose of this article is to identify a cyber-crime classification framework which is necessary these days because of the increasing diversity of the reporting procedures and classifications which are ununiformed. Due to this gap, the authorities are unable to produce valid and reliable decisions. In this article, Stabek et al. has developed a classification framework for cybercrime which will play a vital role in developing transnational, inter-jurisdictional and global approach for identifying, intercepting and prosecuting cyber criminals through valid and reliable proofs.

The objective set for this study was to develop a classification model for detection of various types of scams that prevail in the international online world of cybercrime. Dictionary inconsistencies in the network of crime is often reported as a focal point behind cross-border cooperation and the consistent increase in thin cross-border crime incidents on the network to investigate the cause for failure. This in turn leads to congestion of law enforcement and industry resources.

Methodology adopted by Stabel et al. consists of content analysis of some scam descriptions. A sample of more than 250 scam descriptions was selected by Stabek et al. In which there was 35 scamming categories and around 80 static features which were derived from the sample. Since the sample for this research was too large, Stabek reduced the sample size from 35 categories to 7 scam types having 4 top scamming functions using discriminant function and hierarchical cluster analysis.

Organization of the Paper

This article is divided into 6 parts; motivation, the motivation behind this study was discussed, the report of the analysis, in which a network of crime statistics and crime reporting agencies and networks between the comparative study presented an overview of the method, where in the approach is organized, the results, including a detailed survey results, discussion, and the results are present here, the significance of the research is considered to be a comprehensive discussion, conclusions, in making a final note.

This is a review and analysis of the article titled "The Seven Scam Types: Mapping the Terrain of Cybercrime." In this article, the Stabek et al. has talked about seven different types of scams which the cyber criminals use mostly. The article ends up with development of a classification framework for cybercrime which was applied in the selected samples of scam incidences. Additionally, this article provides some recommendations about the prevention of cybercrimes. Results produced by Stabek et al. have certain ramnifications to the current status of cyber crime classification, scams, research, analysis, etc. This research also offers some practical implications for applications and business processes adopted by cyber criminals and scammers.

Forms of Online Abuse and Crime

Cyber?

crime classification framework (CCF) can be extended to all current and future network into the forms of crime. With the framework can be continuously updated to help ease the rest of the preparation of sector, industry and enterprise of the most advanced information and relevant examples and types of circulating the Internet cyber crime and business goals and individuals.

Every form of online abuse and crime may have from one to many victims, and hundreds, thousands, or even millions of people may be victimized. According to Samual McQuade, categories of cyber scam now include illegal or abusive online activities such as the following:

Cyber negligence by users of information systems who violate recommended or required security policies or sound online practices, thereby exposing their systems, devices, or data to cyber attacks

Traditional in-person crimes by users of computers or other it devices for illicit communications and/or record keeping

Fraud and theft by people who illegally phish, spoof, spim, spam, or otherwise socially engineer people to commit identity theft or gain financially

Computer hacking and password cracking by individuals or groups who crack computer account passwords and unlawfully access information systems or exceed their online system permissions

Writing and releasing malware (i.e., malicious software), including disruptive or destructive viruses, Trojans, worms, and adware/spyware programs as well as illegal massive distributions of email known as spam

Pirating of music, movies, or software using computers and other it devices to violate criminal or civil copyright laws to replicate, distribute, download, sell, or possess software applications, data files, or code

Online harassment and extortion to threaten, intimidate, intentionally embarrass, annoy, coerce or some combination of these which when involving youth is commonly referred to as "cyberbullying"

Cyber stalking, pedophilia, and other cyber sex crimes by online offenders who acquire illegal sexual pleasure by exerting power or control over their victims, including cases of human trafficking for sexual purposes and so-called sex tourism (traveling to have sexual relations with minors) (Rantala 2005)

For example, a group of computer hackers may consist of expert malware code writers who release remotely controlled and/or self-morphing programs onto the Internet where they can be downloaded by unsuspecting users. Results from such an "attack" vary considerably depending on the intent and skill of perpetrators and the potential value of a victim's data. Online theft or destruction of data belonging to a large corporation may be worth millions of dollars, and losses of personal, personnel, or client data can be very traumatic to individual victims, as in cases of identity theft.

Social and Economic Impact of Online Crimes

Firms that lose computerized data due to system user neglect or abuse, to cybercrimes committed by insider employees or external attackers, or to a natural or human-made disaster may never fully recover from their losses. Firms that do not have data saved on their information systems automatically backed up to an offsite location along with business continuity plans ready to implement on a moment's notice risk much. Losses of data, money, or other property, along with emotional and psychological harm and even physical injury or death as the indirect result of cyber crimes, are experienced every day by thousands of individuals, families, and groups of people. (McQuade & Sampat 2008)

Cybercrimes such as those previously listed are normally considered nonviolent property crimes, and many also qualify as financial crimes. This is especially true if the primary goal of offenders is to illegally acquire funds or control electronic banking or credit card accounts. Identity theft, for example, is a financial crimeand often also constitutes bank fraud.

Despite frequent occurrences of identity theft and many other forms of online crime, the amount of financial loss and other social and economic harm caused by or associated with cyber and Internet crimes is not truly known, and the accuracy of any estimate depends on how crimes are defined; however, specific forms of online crime are periodically estimated for specific forms of crime, and annual economic losses from cybercrime have been estimated to be in the tens of billions of dollars worldwide. A single release onto the Internet of a malicious virus, Trojan, or worm program has on more than one occasion affected millions of users and cost billions in damages to information systems and loss of data (e.g., the "I Love You" virus released in May 2000 was estimated to have cost between $1 billion and $10 billion worldwide).

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