Term Paper: Cystic Fibrosis Imaging of the Disease

Pages: 30 (8608 words)  ·  Style: Harvard  ·  Bibliography Sources: 60  ·  Topic: Disease  ·  Buy This Paper

Cystic Fibrosis in the Modern Era disease that steals a childhood, adolescence and adulthood in an assault on the lungs and other vital organs that cause every living action to revolve around the diagnosis, care, and treatment of the condition; it is Cystic Fibrosis (CF). In the United Kingdom, CF has been identified by the Cystic Fibrosis Trust as the nation's most common inherited life-threatening disease (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2008, available at: (http://www.cftrust.org.uk/aboutcf/whatiscf/).According to information on the Trust's web site, more than 8,000 people in the UK suffer from the disease, and more than 2,000,000 people carry the gene identified as the defective CF gene; that is 1 in 25 people (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2008, available at: (http://www.cftrust.org.uk/aboutcf/whatiscf/).It is an unrelenting condition that usually claims the life of its victim anytime between birth and early adulthood, but seldom does the victim live beyond his or her early thirties (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2008, available at: (http://www.cftrust.org.uk/aboutcf/whatiscf/).

Millions of dollars are donated to the Cystic Fibrosis Trust each year in an effort to fund research for new and innovative life-expanding treatment, and a cure (Cystic Fibrosis Trust, 2008, available at: (http://www.cftrust.org.uk/aboutcf/whatiscf/).The work of the Trust and others who devote their lives to research and to finding a cure for CF, are now working in an era of incredible technological advancement and information exchange, which holds great promise for research and for eliminating CF in the future. This brief essay examines the history in the pathology of the disease, diagnosis, and research in the advances in treatment and increasing the life expectancy of individuals who confront the challenges of the disease in their daily lives as science explores the vast complexities of human genetics in unraveling the mysteries of cystic fibrosis.

The following study begins with a literature review, introducing some of the significant sources of research material that make up the bulk of this essay. The literature review is followed by five informative chapters: Chapter One, the anatomy and physiology of the disease; Chapters Two, the imaging modalities; Chapter Three, the unique tool represented in the MRI, as well as its drawbacks; Chapter Four, the drawbacks of the other imaging modalities, and the future of imaging technology in the diagnosis and treatments for CF; and, Chapter Five, the summary and conclusion of the overall information contained in the essay.

Literature Review

Research of the past two decades has been especially prolific in the production of books and peer reviewed journal articles that speak to the diagnosis, treatment, and advancement of research in the study of CF. Using keywords: cystic fibrosis, cystic fibrosis pathology, CF radiology, CF lungs, CF pancreas, CF digestive yielded thousands of books, journal articles, magazine articles, and newspaper articles. For purposes of this study, non-peer reviewed magazine or newspaper articles were eliminated, as were most sources that were older than the past ten years, with the exception of a few books and journal articles that helped to demonstrate the history in the progress of the diagnosis, treatment, and progress in transplants and in the overall research and treatment of the CF.

Of the remaining works, the field was narrowed down to those works that contributed to the most significant understanding and demonstration of the research and progress in the work to increase the quality of life for individuals afflicted with the disease, and works which inform this essay in that direction.

A.R. Col n's and P.A. Col n's (1999, pp. 250, 255, 260, 263) Nurturing Children: A History of Pediatrics, discusses the early advancements in diagnosing CF because of an innovative new tool: radiology. While radiology advanced diagnostics, it helped the key researchers of the era to understand and arrive at conclusions about CF.

Identification and Assessment of Ongoing Stressors in Adolescents With a Chronic Illness: An Application of the Behavior-Analytic Model' is a journal article written by Ann M. Digirolamo and Alexandra L. Quittner highlighting the relationship between stress and chronic diseases (pp. 53-). The study participants involved 45 adolescents, age 12-17, with CF. The data yield and the findings have informed this essay.

000) Chris Bennett and Daniel Peckham. August 2002. The genetics of cystic fibrosis [online]. Leeds University Teaching Hospitals, Leeds, UK. Available from: http://www.cysticfibrosismedicine.com, serves to provide some input on the genetics of CF. The studies and research conducted by these researchers on CF contributes diagrams and statistical information on genetics to this essay.

001)'Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lung in Cystic Fibrosis', like radiology advanced the research and understanding of CF. This article by Talissa a. Altes, Monika Eichinger and Michael Puderbach (2007) explores the giant leaps MRI has meant to body of knowledge on CF by imaging the changing condition as it impacts the vital organs at the different stages of the disease (pp. 321-327).

002)'Computed Tomography and Cystic Fibrosis: Promises and Problems,' ZA Aziz, JC Davies, EW Alton, AU Wells, DM Geddes, DM Hansel (pp. 181-186), is yet another peer reviewed contribution to the study here, and discusses the contribution in the progress of CF through modern technology. The CT scan, as it has been referred to in some medical circles, is an amazing technological advancement that has contributed much to the understanding of CF and other diseases. This group of authors look at the technology in terms of how it has advanced the understanding of CF.

003) the availability of modern technologies does not constitute a carelessness in the use of those technologies. For people suffering chronic illness, like CF, there are risks associated with being subjected to the modern technologies, and for that reason it is with a cautious progress that physicians use those technologies. Cystic Fibrosis: When Should High-Resolution Computed Tomography of the Cest Be Obtained? Is the question that F. Santamaria, G. Grillo, G. Guidi, a. Rotondo, V. Raia, G. de Ritis, P. Sarnelli, M. Caterino, and L. Greco (pp. 908-913).

Cystic Fibrosis in Children and Adults: The Leeds Method of Management, S.P. Conway, J.M. Littlewood, K.G. Brownlee, and D.G. Peckham (2003), all members of the Leeds Regional CF Units at St. James and Seacroft University Hospitals, have provided an informative and useful insight in the experiences of the CF patient at these hospitals. It serves well to inform the understanding of the research here from the patients' perspectives, the hospital staff and teams of ancillary specialists. There is much that goes into the care and treatment of a chronic illness, and this book recognizes those staff positions and career paths that have vital roles in helping patients to achieve and maintain a quality of life for as long as possible in the face of this daunting illness.

Teresa Berrocal, Manuel Parron Pajares, and Amelia Fernandez Zubillaga (2004, pp. 305-309), talk about Pancreatic Cystosis in Children and Young Adults with Cystic Fibrosis: Sonographic, CT, and MRI Findings, that work in support of the previously mentioned authors and bodies of research on the subject. Clearly, modern technology and the ability of professional staff and physicians to be able to interpret these technologies has been the basis for vast amounts of work and study to be analyzed and discussed from the peer reviewed perspective, and in ways that furthers other researchers and physicians in the progress of their own research.

John C. Avise (2004) talks about the Hope, Hype and Reality of Genetic Engineering as it relates to CF. Many people have come to rely on their expectations that research in genetic engineering has advanced to a place in time where it will prove possible to save the lives of those victims of CF who might be in approaching vital points in the progression of the disease. While that is a goal of genetic researchers, and it is the hope of many patients and their families and the medical community; the question of whether or not it is a reality for the near or even distant future is discussed in this book. The information is the difficult but necessary reality that needs to be part of the discussion of this essay.

Much has been investigated for purposes of this research on the existing technology like CT, MRI and radiological services in the advancement of CF diagnosis and treatments. To what extent, though, 'New Tools, New Dilemmas: Genetic Frontiers' exist is discussed by Kathleen Nolan and Sara Swenson in 1988, as we look at the progress made since that discussion two decades ago. Nolan and Swenson contribute to the historical understanding in the advancement of technology, and in putting into perspective those technologies which never manifested themselves as useful, or which have not yet been invented. What are we looking at in the way of 'New Tools, New Dilemmas?'

Other works related the study of genetic research as it pertains to CF will be introduced, and works that focus on CF through sociological studies will be introduced as they come up in the chapter discussions. The official web sites of the Cystic Fibrosis Trust, located online at: http://www.cftrust.org.uk/;the National Institutes of Health, found online at: http://www.nih.gov/;and the American Cystic Foundation, found… [END OF PREVIEW]

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