Research Paper: Dct Dual Coding Theory (Dct)

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[. . .] Students will look at pictures with matching text to associate images with corresponding words from "Mouse Soup"

The students will listen and respond to the story, "Mouse Soup."

The students will echo read the story, "Mouse Soup."

The students will use the strategies of linking images to words to focus on their vocabulary words.

The students will predict, retell, summarize, and discuss key details of the literary text with prompting and support.

1. Standards CSO's or SOLs (Dual Coding Content Standards and Objectives)

DCT does not have formalized content standards or standards of leaning. Reading comprised of decoding, comprehension, and response. Decoding of words is facilitated by using both imagery (visual) paths and verbal (auditory, written language) paths in the brain so that the entire brain is activated during learning. Comprehension is accomplished by the pairing of mental images with associated verbal content.

Responses are based on the decoding and comprehension. When reading can be made concrete through the use of imagery and verbal stimuli students learn more efficiently.

The three levels of processing are:

(1) Representational processing which is simple word recognition.

(2) Associative processing occurs when different concepts are linked (verbal concepts linked together or visual concepts linked together) to create a deeper understanding of the original input.

(3) Referential processing involves the activation of both verbal and visual concepts together resulting in more complete comprehension.

This is accomplished by linking visual and verbal stimuli together during learning.

1. Materials

"I Can Read: Mouse Soup" book by Arnold Lobel

Computer Projector

Lab top computer

Prearranged PowerPoint presentation with words and corresponding pictures

Word Board and Word/Picture Boards of words in Mouse Soup students are not familiar with Paper



1. Procedure:

4. Text/Concept Introduction:

We are going to read a story entitled, "Mouse Soup," by Arnold Lobel. It is important to read all kinds of books. Reading is easier if we have pictures that describe the sentences.

The book is rather long and this might be best broken down into two sections, one for the first half of the book and one for the second half on a different day. First we are going to look at pictures and match them to words. Then we will look at the words alone and see if we can remember the picture that went with it. (Lists should be short between 10-15 words at first). We can also do the same thing with images and short sentences describing them. First I will show them the cover of the book picture from the book and ask them what is going on (see power point slide). Then I will show them the cover of the book and the corresponding words to the pictures on the cover. Then I will ask them to tell me what mouse soup might taste like. Next we can connect prior knowledge with by students about mice and soups to from associations.

Once we have had a little brief fun with that we will go over PowerPoint slides of images and words that are in Mouse Soup. After reviewing words and pictures we can try words only. Once this has been accomplished several times I will do this by having them turn to their buddy and practice the words and pictures and then the words.

After we do the picture word matching we will have the students predict what is going to happen in the story. I will then read the story out loud to the class pointing out the pictures on PowerPoint slides. Then we will echo read.

4. Reading Method:

Students will observe word-image pairs on PowerPoint slides and on paper. Once this is done they will look at words only and read them, trying to recall the image. This can also be dome with sentences and images. Then I am going to read the story out loud to the class while they look at the PowerPoint slides of the pages in the book. When there are no pictures we will read, stop, and I will ask students to imagine the scene described by the words. Second time reading through we will echo read with pictures using the same strategies. Teacher will read a sentence and the students will echo the same sentence. At the end of the reading students will be shown word/picture pairs again.

Oral Reading/Fluency Strategies:

DCT stress the importance of dual coding of images and verbal stimuli. Here we will be matching familiar pictures to words, using imagery, and then trying to read the words without pictures. We can also post sets of sentences and pictures in the reading area for the students to look at throughout the day. This will give the students the opportunity to practice reading sentences by matching them with the images covered that day.

Language/Vocabulary Strategies:

Vocabulary words to focus on will be in lists of word-image pairs and sentence image pairs.

Strategies I am going to use to teach these words are pairing them with pictures, using imagery, and words/images in the classroom.

4. Listening

Multiple listening strategies are covered including having students get involved and associate words with pictures, auditory stimuli with images, and predict what will happen ("efferent listening"). Of course listening to the story and associating images with words is aesthetic listening. This type of listening strategy is used for enjoyment

4. Comprehension Strategies:

The comprehension strategies involve the use of pictures, imagery, predicting action based on previous happenings, and with writing strategies below. During reading the class can stop after each page to discuss the images that correspond to text using buddy conversations and whole group conversations. After reading the story we will use the comprehension strategies of retelling and summarizing the story with pictures and written words using a buddy. Students can also discuss their favorite part of the story.

4. Writing Composition Strategies:

We can have students do several things here. First we can have them draw scenes from the story as they recall them and label the parts of the pictures. Next, I can have them look at pictures from the story and write what they see. They will have to identify and write the title of the book, and the author. When complete they will sit in the authors chair and present their work to the class. I will hang these on the wall for everyone to look at.

4. Phonics and Spelling Strategies:

In phonics we will be working on the letters ou. We will discuss how mouse and soup differ in sound (using images). .

Spelling will focus on the high frequency concrete words (mouse, soup, etc.). We will pass images of the corresponding word-picture pairs around.

1. Assessment/Evaluation:

Oral Reading and Fluency can be assessed by observation and antidotal notes

Language and Vocabulary- this will be assessed with a checklist consisting of if the students can use the words in a Listening- this will be assessed by observation

Comprehension- this will be assessed by observation and drawing/sentence

Writing Phonics/Spelling- this will be assessed by looking at writing assignments and reading assignments

1. Modifications/Adaptations:

Lesson is planned to fit with needs of students. We can adapt different pictures and ask students their associative responses for some of the words. It is important to keep images and words paired together to facilitate learning.

1. Extensions/Technology:

We can extends the lesson by having students make picture books of their personal experiences with mice, their favorite soups, and by having them write sentences summarizing parts of the story or describing pictures from the story that they have already seen

Lots of technology is used, students are exposed to computers, PowerPoint presentations, word-image lists, pictures, etc.

1. Your Reflection:

This lesson demonstrates the DCT model as it pairs words with pictures, allows for associations, has students imagine scenes paired with auditory stimuli, and allows them to go back and draw and explain what they were exposed to. The story itself is concrete and most students will find it interesting.

Dual Coding Theory was originally developed for memory research noting that images and words influence memory differently. It has been subsequently applied to reading programs. The assertion is that learning to read a new word is more efficient if more than one part of the brain is activated, by paring verbal and nonverbal codes. If one code is forgotten, the second code can serve as a backup during word retrieval. By paring written words, pronunciations, pictures, and experience we are focusing on all levels of processing… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Dct Dual Coding Theory (Dct).  (2012, April 15).  Retrieved March 23, 2019, from

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