Research Paper: Decision-Making Critical Review Vroom, V.H., &amp Jago

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Decision-Making Critical Review

Vroom, V.H., & Jago, A.G. (1974). Decision Making As A Social Process: Normative And

Descriptive Models Of Leader Behavior. Decision Sciences, 5(4), 743-769.

Decision making ability is a vital skill of all people regardless of age; this skill is exclusively crucial in the current modern world, which has put emphasis on independence in the entire lifespan. Jago and Vroom have argued that older adults are likely to make decisions that make great impacts in their future lives. Circumstances in life are regularly changing. Because these adults are likely to make decisions to retire, such a decision is expected to draw associated decisions such as saving and restructuring their every-day lives. Moreover, adults make everyday decisions for them to maintain their household, relationships and finances, thus decision-making are vital throughout lives of individuals. The toll of physical ageing has forced adults to embrace the challenge of making complex health decisions in life. Such decisions involve decisions on the best medical practices, the effective medical insurance procedures and which medication procedures to follow. In the context of adult's lifetime, healthcare systems have evolved from a family doctor's advice model to a model where patients are likely to become participants in the doctor's decision-making. Adults who have the ability of tackling these decisions have high expectations of getting improved healthcare (Vroom & Jago, 1974).

This article has employed two research questions:

1) Is there a variation in problem solving techniques among different professionals of rehabilitation?

2) Is there a variation in styles of making decisions among different rehabilitation professionals?

Vroom has identified a set of five scores for different group samples used in the study. Vroom and Jagon have computed the mean standard error to indicate the raw score points to vary in repeated comparison to similar populations. Because this study has employed interpretations focusing on variations at the level of groups, the mean standard error is more appropriate than the measurement standard error. This article has computed differences in each group for their thinking skill and intuition scales (Vroom & Jago, 1974). After conducting an analysis on these groups, orientations of problem solving among these rehabilitation groups did not have significant differences. Adding on to these significant variations, the sample groups exhibited the types of Myers-Briggs.

In order to determine the typology of the prevailing Myers-Briggs, Vroom and Jagon used continuous scores to measure the strength and direction of preferred problem solving. While scores on various dichotomies have represented strong attitudinal preferences, scores exhibited in the study done by this article reflect minimal distinctive preferences. Therefore, the article surmises the sample rehabilitation professionals as a single entity revealing no judgment or dominant perceptions of attitudes. This means that rehabilitation professionals used in this article had the capability of the four problem solving techniques (intuitive feeling, intuitive thinking, sensing feeling, and sensing thinking) (Vroom & Jago, 1974).

The findings in this study are in contrast with earlier studies that employed rehabilitation counselors and Myers-Briggs. In the study, counselors of rehabilitation proved to be predominant with intuitive types of feelings. The homogeneousness of subjects is the basis for variations in these studies accounting for diverse results. While the McCauley and Myers research employed rehabilitation professional counselors, the study in this article included vocational counselors, rehabilitation counselors, rehabilitation nurses, and other related professionals (Vroom & Jago, 1974).

Maier, N.R. (1967). Assets and liabilities in group problem solving: the need for an integrative function. Psychological Review; 74(4), 239.

Maier published a peculiar article about assets and liabilities of group problem solving in Psychology. In this article, Maier claims that assets used in group problem solving entail creation of better problem solving and more information approaches. Evidently, a better solution can be brought to reduce chances of perceptual and careless errors from participants. However, groups have the chances of providing groupthink, conformity, and dominance over competition or single factions that are likely to reduce the value associated with group decision making. The point-of-view adopted by Maier emphasize that not all groups are equal (Maier, 1967).

The most effective leader of any group is not necessarily a martinet such as a savage but a facilitator. Maier has posed that effective group leaders are expected to operate in a manner similar to the central nervous system found in species such as starfish. This nervous system does not have original thoughts because it is responsible for coordinating the sensory inputs from the five legs of the starfish. Maier contrasts the facilitative nature of the nerve ring picture with a salesperson. Nevertheless, context is likely to change the argument that nerve rings found in starfish are effective group leaders than salespersons. In a work setting of high stress, group work may call for rapid coordination. The point advanced by Maier is that effective group participation and leadership skills are fundamental and must be learned (Maier, 1967).

Teamwork attracts several challenges such as communication. This entails the stages of developing groups, establishing goals, as well as the establishing of credibility by the leader. Concerning communication, it is fundamental to develop supportive styles of communication. Supportive styles of communication focus on both the emotional and content of communication. Successful business managers have acknowledged the emotional aspects of communication. However, this skill is one that needs development in professional employees. Effective communication calls for good listening; validating vies obtained from other people, taking responsibility of individual viewpoints and remaining truthful to one another (Maier, 1967).

Connolly, T. & Ordonez, L. 2003. Judgment and Decision Making. Handbook of Psychology. Three: 493 -- 517.

These authors have defined decision making as a rational mental process with no emotion. Further, they have posed that emotions jeopardize and disrupt the rational mental process. In judgment and decision-making, the authors have described rationality as a formal consistency, which conforms to probability laws and the paradigms of utility theory. This article claims that if individuals behave in a rational manner, they are likely to make optimal judgments and decisions (Connolly & Ordonez, 2003).

Nevertheless, there is accumulating evidence that the above concepts might not be true. With no emotional participation, judgment and decision-making is likely to be impossible or is likely to less optimal. Moreover, neuropsychological studies have produced evidence suggesting that all levels of brain functioning and structure, a significant distinction between emotion and cognition are likely to be feasible. Therefore, the opposition of rational and irrational emotion is likely to become dubious on neuro-anatomical and behavioral grounds (Connolly & Ordonez, 2003).

I have agreed with this belief and view that the idea of rationality must be founded on grounds of emotional evaluation validity and not formal coherence. In case the emotional appraisal of individuals are appropriate, individuals fear what is to be encountered objectively: if they anticipate what is likely to make them happy, then such emotions will be categorized as rational. Current evidence pose that individuals are not exceptionally good in making judgments and decisions regarding things that make them happy. Therefore, emotions might be appropriate thus, rational or even inappropriate thus, irrational. Emotions have been perceived to be sources of threats towards rationality. The rationality pertaining to judgment and making decisions depends on the capacity of people to develop appropriate emotions. Further, the influence caused by metaphors might be misleading in this context; with the assumption of irrational forces on rational processes (Connolly & Ordonez, 2003).

Bechara, A. (2004). The role of emotion in decision-making: Evidence from neurological patients with orbitofrontal damage. Brain and cognition, 55(1), 30-40.

The most prominent characteristic among human beings in regards to drug addiction is the constant consumption of substances even with increased negative impacts. They include legal, social, and medical problems. This has been witnessed in patients suffering from orbitofrontal cortex lesions condition because they show symptoms of impaired decision-making and judgment. Such individuals have characteristics such as a tendency to identify and select immediate rewards while precipitating severe adverse consequences in the future. This raises the question of why is it that an individual who depends on substance so insensitive to the expected impacts on their drug seeking tendencies. Similarly, people might ask why these individuals experience challenges in selecting the right choices (Bechara, 2004).

Gunia, B.C., Wang, L., Huang, L., Wang, J., & Murnighan, J.K. (2012). Contemplation

and conversation: subtle Influences on moral decision-making. Academy of Management Journal, 55(1), 13-33.

In the context of organizations, vital decisions tend to disrupt ethical strengths of decision makers. Self-interests and unethical choices might become profitable but can draw permanent dire consequences. When individuals come to choose between wrong and right, employees become easily swayed. This works in favor of the opposite direction. Employees can be encouraged to engage in ethical decision making by taking a couple of simple actions. This article has conducted an experiment to measure the level at which employees are likely to give genuine information about monetary issues (Gunia, Wang, Huang, Wang & Murnighan, 2012). Participants in the study were expected to give true information about money that would be split if they were given… [END OF PREVIEW]

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