Dementia Deficiency of Mental Ability Acute Enough Term Paper

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deficiency of mental ability acute enough to hinder with normal actions of daily living, which persists for more than six months, which is not present from birth and which is not connected with loss or modification of consciousness is Dementia. (Dementia: ( Dementia is the deficiency of mental abilities and most normally arises only in the later part of life. Around 5-8% of all people over age 65 are demented. This percentage increases greatly with age. Twenty-five to 50% of people over the age of 85 are affected. Incidence of Dementia over the age of 65 years occurs in 5-8%; over the age of 75 years occurs in 15-20% and over the age of 85 years occurs in 25-50%. The most general form of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, constitutes for 50-75% of all cases of dementia. (Dementia: Help for Relatives, Friends and Caregivers)

The term Dementia is used for a range of states that include loss of mental ability and so is the reason for problems with memory, language, behavior and emotions. In the elderly people, Dementia is common. To some extent this affects people above the age of 65. Dementia is caused by problems in the manner in which the brain functions. The cause for Dementia is the non-functioning or dying of neurons. This often alters the levels of different neurotransmitters, which affect the function of the brain. Dementia is not a standard part of ageing. It is different from the slight poor memory that occurs in the elderly. (Dementia: (

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There are many bases for Dementia, some of which are difficult to explain. In elderly people, many medical conditions can produce dementia symptoms. Many diseases, infections, strokes, head injuries, drugs and nutritional deficits can cause dementia. All dementias show dysfunction in the cerebral cortex, or brain tissue. Some disease procedures harm the cortex directly; others disturb sub-cortical areas that usually control the function of the cortex. In categorizing dementias, medical professionals may either separate cortical or sub-cortical dementias or divide reversible and irreversible dementias. The main irreversible causes of dementia are: These damage brain cells in both cortical and sub-cortical areas. Treatment is mainly concentrated on leisurely progress of the underlying condition and reducing symptoms. (Dementia Overview)

Alzheimer disease: This is the most usual cause of dementia, reporting for about half of all cases. In this disease, unusual protein deposits in the brain tear down cells in the areas of the brain that manage memory and mental functions. There is no cure for Alzheimer diseases and it is not reversible. But some medications can slow down the progress. Vascular dementia: This is the second most common cause of dementia, reporting for as many as 40% of cases. This dementia is due to atherosclerosis, or "hardening of the arteries," in the brain. In the interior part of the arteries a deposit of fats, dead cells and other debris are formed, which block the blood flow. This leads to stroke or a disruption in the blood flow to the brain. Vascular dementia is connected to high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, diabetes, and related conditions. Medications can slow down the progress, but the functions lost cannot be restored.

Parkinson disease: People with this disease normally have limb firmness, speech problems, and shake. Dementia may form late in the disease, but not all with Parkinson disease has dementia. Reasoning, memory, speech, and judgment are most likely to be disturbed. Lewy body dementia: Unusual microscopic deposits of protein, called Lewy bodies, which wipe out nerve cells is the main reason for this disease. Lewy body dementia has an effect on thinking, attention, and concentration more than memory and language. Like Alzheimer disease, Lewy body dementia is not reversible and has no known treatment. Huntington disease: This hereditary disease causes desecrating of certain types of brain cells that manage movement as well as thinking. Dementia is common and happens in the later stages of the disease. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: This exceptional disease occurs mostly in young and middle-aged adults. The disease develops quickly and is incurable. Pick disease or frontotemporal dementia: This is another unusual disorder that injures cells in the front part of the brain. (Dementia Overview)

Dementia related behaviors:

Elderly people with dementia behave in ways that affect others and themselves. They usually undergo personality changes, become irritable easily and suffer from anxiety. At the later stages of the disease misunderstanding, delirium, agitation, illusions, hostility, and wandering may form. Some of the changes in behavior related to dementia are Agitation: it is the most usual behavioral symptom for elderly people with dementia. 80 to 90% of the older people get easily tensed. Agitation can be due to the environment or due to stress like the death of a beloved or change to a different caregiver. Delirium: this is also known as a confusional state. People with delirium have a swift change by over a few hours or days in their mental aptitude. They have problems in concentrating on their interest and get easily diverted. Delirium can make people mentally agitated and restive, but it can also make some people quiet and sleepy. For people with delirium, their speech is mystified and has delusions. Normally, people with delirium have confused thoughts and they make no sense while they speak. (Understanding Behavior - Disorders Related to Dementia: A Guide to Helping Nursing Home Residents with Dementia)

Some of the risk factors for developing delirium are: old age, having a background of alcohol abuse, visual or hearing problems, medical illness, acute anemia, being bedridden for a long time. Proper care must be given at the proper time to treat delirium. Catastrophic Reaction (major overreaction): Some people with dementia have catastrophic reaction to things, which most people think to be a slight stress. In this type the older people become very angry, they shout at others or might even throw objects or hit other people. These violent actions are due to aggravation or uncertainty. Some people may also show: lack of interest in things, which they once they were fond of; calling out or shouting; rejecting to do things; moving away from others; being perverse; and strolling. (Understanding Behavior - Disorders Related to Dementia: A Guide to Helping Nursing Home Residents with Dementia)

Dementia influenced by Environment:

Dementia usually comes with a number of behavioral problems. The acuteness of the problems may vary from person to person and at various stages of dementia, creating awkwardness and problem to caretakers. A cautious and complete assessment of all feasible factors of the behavioral problems will help the caretakers to tackle these problems more efficiently. Environmental impacts like deafening noise and extreme spur from the environment may lead to anxiety. Large space, strange or new atmosphere, may cause bewilderment and nervousness. (Behavioral Management in Persons with Dementia) Nearly half the people over the age of 85 are affected by dementia. Longer hospital stays lead to dementia- related behavioral problems. (No magic pill for treating dementia symptoms)

In 90% of the dementia patients, disruptive behaviors arise during the course of the disease. A multi-dimensional model categorizes the reasons for disruptive behaviors into those related to the patient, caregivers, or the environment, and further categroizes each group into modifiable and non-modifiable categories. The model makes use of a planned approach to the treatment of these indications that will increase the quality of life of the patients. (Behavioral disturbances in dementia: finding the cause)

Environment modifications to treat Dementia:

The surroundings in which patients with dementia are taken care of can have a major influence on their capacity to function and quality of life. The perfect surroundings help them to thrive as they take part in activities that they relish. The aim is to regularize their life. Helpful surroundings are to be formed to achieve this aim. A country kitchen can help inhabitants to gather the way they might at home, around the kitchen table. Caretakers, who are also component of the community, can know residents well in these closer settings, and are better able to find out what each resident might cherish and find important. The main necessities are a limited number of residents, a devoted staff, and a place to meet where regular, significant activities may be carried out. (Transforming Care for People with Dementia across the Continuum) solarium or a multi-task activity room can be planned. A place where the residents can sit, socialize and engage in some kind of activity can be arranged. Textures, colors are given and each residential house is identified by color and symbol. For instance, this could be a pink schoolhouse, blue star or a green tree house. The outer area of the house is painted with the color given as the name. Some pictures are pasted in the house and this helps the people with failing memory to perform without help. An atmosphere is not just architectural design and the adjacent outdoor space; it is also the people. Staff must be qualified to take utmost benefit of the design… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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