Research Paper: Denver Climate Action Planning Project Carbon Dioxide

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Denver Climate Action Planning Project

Carbon dioxide emissions, the most common greenhouse gas, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports, increased by 20% from 1990 to 2005. One recent climate action report projects the projected 19% increase in emissions between 2000 and 2020 will contribute to an array of environmental crises not only in the U.S., but also in countries throughout the world. If business-as-usual continues, increases in greenhouse gas emissions could skyrocket in places like Denver, Colorado, the city for the focus in this Capstone.

A current primary goal of the City and County of Denver, noted in the Denver Climate Action plan, purports to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Denver. Through city support of alternative transportation, the plan involves either incentivizing and/or searching for other ways to utilize alternative transportation. Consequently, in the interest of additionally enhancing the understanding or the critical need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this Capstone determines to disclose common characteristics of the successful plans other cities have incorporated, and to some degree, evaluate the costs of implementing each program. The researcher utilizes the case study methodology, a form of qualitative descriptive research which the researcher utilized to address the primary research question, which queries: "What plans can the City and County of Denver, Colorado implement to reduce Green House gas emissions in Denver?."

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

The best plan is, as the common proverb has it, to profit by the folly of others" www.bartleby.com/100/710.html" Pliny the Elder (A.D. c. 23-A.D. 79) www.bartleby.com/100/710.html" Pliny the Elder, as cited in Bartlett, 2000).

Context of the Problem

Currently, the United States merits the distinct embarrassment of qualifying as the world's largest producer of greenhouse gases. Researchers predict that U.S. greenhouse gas emissions will continue to increase during the next decade, with increasingly somber consequences. Elena Fagotto, and Mary Graham (2007), point out in "Full disclosure: Using transparency to fight climate change; an essential first step in any effective climate change policy is to require major contributors to fully disclose their greenhouse gas emissions" that a recent climate action report projects the projected 19% increase in emissions between 2000 and 2020 will "contribute to persistent drought, coastal flooding, and water shortages in many parts of the country and around the world" (¶ 5). If cities, counties and states continue to conduct business-as-usual, Fagotto, and Graham warn, the increase could skyrocket to 30%. Carbon dioxide emissions, the most common greenhouse gas, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports, increased by 20% from 1990 to 2005. "Emissions of three more potent fluorinated gases, hydroflu-orocarbons, perfluorocompounds, and sulfur hexafluoride, weighted for their relative contribution to climate change, increased by 82.5%. (Fagotto, & Graham, 2007, ¶ 5). Although congressional leaders currently contemplate potential long-term-approaches to counter climate change, major proposals leave would not take effect for at least three more years. During the reportedly inevitable delay, U.S. greenhouse gas emissions continue to increase.

Statement of the Problem

In consideration of the critical, contemporary concern regarding greenhouse gas emissions, a primary goal of the City and County of Denver, Colorado, noted in the Denver Climate Action plan, purports to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Denver. Through city support of alternative transportation, the plan involves either incentivizing and/or searching for other ways to utilize alternative transportation. Consequently, in the interest of additionally enhancing the understanding or the critical need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, this Capstone determines to disclose common characteristics of the successful plans other cities have incorporated, and to some degree, evaluate the costs of implementing each program.

Significance of the Study

The researcher perceives this Capstone to be personally and professionally significant as The bottom line:

Research Question and Sub-question

This Capstone, a qualitative study, utilizes the case study methodology, which proved helpful as a guide to answer this study's research questions. The primary research question for this study examines information/data to address the query: What plans can the City and County of Denver, Colorado implement to reduce Green House gas emissions in Denver? Sub-questions addressed during the course of this study include:

What are some current existing projects that incentivize the use of alternative transportation to reduce energy use, traffic congestion, and emissions of green house gases and other pollutants?

What are some of the common characteristics noted in successful projects or strategies?

What is the best way to approach the problem of Green House gas emissions?

What areas merit particular consideration and/or concern?

Organization of the Study

The following five chapters constitute the body of the Capstone.

Chapter I: Introduction

Chapter II: Literature Review

Chapter III: Methodology

Chapter IV: Analysis/Findings

Chapter V: Discussion, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Chapter I: Introduction

Chapter I, this study's introduction, introduces the Capstone's focus, presents the context of the problem, the problem statement, the main research question, four sub-questions addressed, and the significance of the study. The introduction also relates the research methodology the researcher used to address the primary research/sub-question(s).

Chapter II: Review of the Literature During Chapter II, the researcher presents information accessed from relevant studies and articles. This chapter explores literature which supports the research questions this Capstone proposes to answer.

Chapter III: Methodology

In Chapter III, the researcher expounds the research methodology, the case study methodology, a form of qualitative descriptive research which the researcher utilized to address the primary research question, and the four sub-questions.

Chapter IV: Analysis/Findings

Chapter IV explicates findings the researcher retrieved during this Capstone. In this section, the researcher relates specific suggested strategies for countering the increase of greenhouse gases.

Chapter V: Discussion, Conclusions, and Recommendations

Chapter V of this Capstone reflects a synopsis of relevant information and relates the researcher's concluding thoughts. In addition, the researcher notes answers for this study's primary question and researched sub-questions. Ultimately, based on researched findings, the researcher proffers recommendations to encourage future researchers, and recounts lessons the researcher obtained during the learning process involved in completing this Capstone.

Entering the next phase of this Capstone, the Literature Review chapter, the researcher asserts, that in addition to the proverb attributed to Pliny the Elder, that "the best plan is...to profit by the folly of others" (www.bartleby.com/100/710.html" Pliny the Elder, as cited in Bartlett, 2000), another concept merits consideration. The best plan, the researcher contends, also profits from the knowledge others attribute.

The next chapter, as part of the researcher's plan for this Capstone, the Literature Review chapter, reflects a sampling of that knowledge related to reducing greenhouse gases.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

Always design a thing by considering it in its next larger context chair in a room, a room in a house, house in an environment, an environment in a city plan"

Eliel Saarinen (Saarinen as cited in Simpson, 1988)

Introduction design of a study's search process, Auston, Cahn, and Selden (2004), stress, mandates that a researcher retrieve and integrate information during his/her gathering of research.

During this Capstone, this researcher identified a sampling of relevant literature relating to this study's focus and presents this information in this second chapter. The review of literature comprises a vital part of the case study, and constitutes an explicit, systematic approach to identifying, retrieving, and managing of credible information to locate information on a particular topic. For the design of this Capstone's literature review, the researcher considered the literature for review, as Saarien notes regarding a design: "in its nest larger context" (Saarinen as cited in Simpson, 1988). The larger context, as noted in the introduction for this study, encompasses the reduction of greenhouse gas emission. In relating considerations for this focus, the researcher chose to implement a thematic arrangement of the literature, which includes:

Existing Projects

Common Characteristics Noted in Successful Projects or Strategies

Approaches to Counter Green House gas

Programs Meriting Particular Consideration

Existing Projects

Existing projects that incentivize the use of alternative transportation to reduce energy use, traffic congestion, and emissions of green house gases and other pollutants include

Evaluation Data

Cost Data.

Characteristics in Successful Projects/Strategies

Approaches to counter green house gas

Emissions, as well as areas for concern

Public Policy-making

Research related in "Effectiveness of the mobility pass program in San Diego" supports regional transportation policy-making in San Diego, in comparable cities across California, as well as other U.S. cities. Based upon participation in a mobility pass program or Compass + Pass Program during late 2004, Louis Rea, and Sherry Ryan (2007), examine the mobility pass program's effectiveness on individual travel behavior, resulting from the utilization of combined car-sharing and transit passes. Primary findings indicate some level of latent demand exists for alternatives to the drive alone commute; particularly as an alternative in heavy peak hour traffic congestion. Program participants improved their perceptions relating to transit, Rea, and Ryan also found, when individuals participate in the Program.

Pass users in the San Diego mobility pass program received unlimited transit system access, along with limited monthly car-sharing privileges. The literature Rea, and Ryan (2007) reviewed relating to their study "demonstrates that mobility pass programs are a viable means for reducing negative impacts of drive alone travel behavior.… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Denver Climate Action Planning Project Carbon Dioxide.  (2009, February 25).  Retrieved July 19, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/denver-climate-action-planning-project/583804

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"Denver Climate Action Planning Project Carbon Dioxide."  Essaytown.com.  February 25, 2009.  Accessed July 19, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/denver-climate-action-planning-project/583804.