Essay: Deprivation

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¶ … deprivation and when does it lead to aggression?

Relative deprivation is when a person is denied access to something or someone when they see other people having access. The individual believes they have as much right to this variable thing as a person who actually has it. It leads to aggression when the relative deprivation is felt too keenly for too long in too large a population.

Should you pay children for getting good grades? Why or why not?

You should not pay children for getting good grades. Most research focused on the issue has shown that bribery benefits in the short-term, but that children lose out in the end. They are not motivated to succeed for their own intellectual benefit, but for a cash incentive. This leads to problems later on in life where the adults will not accomplish goals for their own sake, but for the benefits they will receive by their accomplishment.

Why are people with low self-esteem more likely to cheat in a card game?

People cheat in order to win when they feel that there is little or no chance that they can do so by playing honestly. With people who have low self-esteem, they have a very poor self-image. They do not see themselves as winners, as people who can be successful; they also do not want to participate in any action which will be embarrassing, such as losing. Therefore, the idea of cheating becomes more attractive because there is a greater likelihood that they will win, thus earning praise and avoiding embarrassment or negative criticism.

4. What is the difference between hostile and benevolent sexism? What do they have in common?

Hostile sexism refers to the negative ideas of a sexist ideology, such as the domination by the male gender, the derogatory beliefs related to gender, and negative ideas regarding deviation from heterosexual relationships. Benevolent sexism refers to the idea of one gender needed to dominate the other for the benefit of the oppressed gender, such as in the overprotection of women or the idealization of women which real people cannot compare to. Both forms of sexism deal with the issues of power, sexuality, and separation of gender norms.

5. What is the single most important factor in whether two people are attracted to each other? How does this differ between the short-term and long-term?

Physical appearance is the single most important factor in whether two people are attracted to one another. This works only in the short-term. Once two people start to spend time with each other, there needs to be something besides physical attraction to sustain the relationship. In the long-term, things like personality and common interests have more importance.

6. Describe the phenomena of stereotype threat and give an example of it.

Stereotype threat is when a person fears that they are going to comply with negative stereotypes about the group to which they belong. One example is when a woman takes a mathematics test. She might feel that she will not do well and thereby conform to the negative stereotype that women are bad at math.

7. How does culture protect us from our fear of death?

Cultures are made up of systems which give each life meaning. By being involved in culture, a person's life takes on meaning to them which they then believe gives them a type of immortality.

8. Define cognitive dissonance and describe why we try to reduce it.

Cognitive dissonance occurs when a person's beliefs or actions are contradictory to other held beliefs. We try to reduce this problem because it is unsettling and makes it difficult to make decisions. Reducing cognitive dissonance allows for more effective and expedient decision-making.

9. Describe what the gain-loss theory of attraction is and why it occurs.

The gain-loss theory of attraction is the belief that it is more rewarding to win over people who initially had a bad opinion of you than to win people over immediately. This occurs because we work harder to make people like us when we feel that they do not care for us. When they are finally brought around, there is a feeling that this kinship has been earned instead of freely given.

10. What are some of the benefits of being physically attractive throughout the lifespan?

There are many benefits to being physically attractive throughout your lifespan, including finding a life partner, getting a job, increased earnings in your job, and being viewed as being more competent, likeable, and trustworthy, as well as having a higher level of confidence and a higher self-esteem.

11. Describe 3 factors that can influence how prejudiced someone is.

People tend to feel a sense of belonging to those who are similar to themselves and an aversion to those who are different. In addition, intergroup conflict contributes, which is when members of different groups compete for materials, services, or goals. Attribution, or the attempt to find causation for everything, is the third factor. When things go poorly, there is a need to find someone to blame which causes prejudices based on stereotyping.

12. What is the best way to punish a child for behaving aggressively and encourage non-aggressive behavior? Use evidence from the class to back up your argument.

The best way to punish a child for aggressive behavior is to give time-outs or other non-physical punishments. The best ways to encourage non-aggression are to model those behaviors, as children tend to repeat what they witness. It is also effective to praise them when they make positive, non-aggressive decisions.

13. What tends to happen when white male employers interview minorities for a job? What is the result?

White male employers tend to talk down to minorities who interview for jobs. They may ask questions which are irrelevant or off-putting which in turn puts the interviewee on the defense. The result is usually an unsuccessful interview and the candidate does not get the job.

14. Describe the difference between passionate and companionate love.

Passionate love is one based upon intense physical attraction with a need to be physically intimate. A companionate love is one based upon companionship, where the two people enjoy each other's company in non-sexual ways.

15. How do we attain self-esteem according to Terror Management Theory and how does this protect us from death anxiety?

According to Terror Management Theory, we attain self-esteem through confirmation that our choices are good and preventing impending death. Education, completing goals, and cultural internalization are all ways we can attain self-esteem. We build up our self-confidence and become more concerned with life and the current moment as opposed to focusing on the potential death situations in our day-to-day lives.

16. Why are people scared of death?

Most people are scared of death because it is the unknown. There are many theories about what happens to a person once they die, but no one can be certain which, if any, of these theories is correct.

17. What is the primary difference between how men and women express aggression?

Primarily men use physical aggression while women express aggression through verbal attacks.

18. Describe the relationship between cognitive dissonance, self-esteem, and derogating victims.

When there is less cognitive dissonance, a person has an elevated self-esteem. The individual has stronger abilities to make decisions which builds confidence. If an individual has lower self-esteem and more frequent cognitive dissonance, then they will be more likely to behave aggressively and consequently, be more likely to derogate others.

19. Suppose you are observing a very popular, perfect-seeming classmate eat lunch and you see her spill gravy on her dress. Now, pretend it was actually someone who you feel is rather clumsy. How would this likely affect your feelings about each person and why?

If this person were not clumsy, then I would not expect them to spill gravy on their dress. The shock of the action would be greater. If, however, she were clumsy, then the action would not be as surprising and therefore the impact of the event would be less. I would therefore have more sympathy for the graceful scenario because neither she nor I would be accustomed to this happening.

20. What is deindividuation and why does it lead to aggression?

Deindividuation is when a person loses their sense of individuality, most often when they are in a group. This can often lead to aggression because the loss of individuality is also the loss of the ability to make decisions independent of the group. When one member of a group decides on an aggressive act due to physical or emotional factors, the other members of that group will likewise become aggressive so that they feed off of one another's negative emotions. It is the old adage that a person would do in a group what they would never do alone.

21. What is the most effective way to help people become less prejudiced?

The most effective way to help people become less prejudiced is through diversification. When people are forced… [END OF PREVIEW]

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