Developing a Comprehensive Literacy Instruction Term Paper

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¶ … Literacy

COMPREHENSIVE LITERARY MODEL GRADE K (KINDERGARTEN)

Comprehensive Literary Model Grade K/

How Instill Love of Learning

Ingredients of Reading and Writing

Reading in terms of No Child Left Behind Strategies for Reading

Love of Reading

Educators (and parents) are responsible for preparing their students to become mature adults who can have a personally rewarding life as well as enhance the society in which they live. In today's fast-paced technological world, that can only be done with strong literacy skills. In order to most effectively teach these literary skills, students must have both the interest and desire to acquire them and the understanding of their value in the present world.

Reading ability has long been recognized as the key predictor of school success, and thus future career and life success as well. Teaching basic skills is only one part of the entire literacy whole. The other major part is motivating children to read. There are many ways of encouraging children at a young age to love and value reading. These include:

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From the time a child is born, reading at nap/bedtime can become a family tradition that is valued from one generation to the next. Unfortunately, too many times this practice stops when the child begins school, because of the full day of learning and the many outside activities. This ritual can continue in elementary and even middle school, by finding the appropriate readings for the child's age and the school's curriculum. This can become a special time that children will want to continue when they have their own children.

Trips to the local library can also begin from infancy. At first, the child will play with the toys and listen to the parent reading a book. As children get older, they can attend library children's programming and browse the shelves for books of interest. The parent can encourage the child to look at different areas of the library where their children do not normally go.

Term Paper on Developing a Comprehensive Literacy Instruction Assignment

Children love to model their parents. The reading tradition can include mom and dad, as well. Perhaps there are certain times each week that are set aside for the whole family reading; it is a pleasure having the TV and computers off for this quiet time.

With that said, many children do acquire a love and interest in reading through computer games and television. There are programs on both that promote reading. Be careful that these are not available primarily for commercial reasons. Also, some games are either too academic or non-academic. There are so many out on the market now that it is easy to find one that offers both learning and fun.

Reading includes much more than books. While in the car or walking, children can read traffic signs, or information on vehicles, billboards and stores. While in the car, they can listen to books on tape. Story telling is a wonderful way to encourage the love of words. Instead of reading some nights, tell each other a story. It is also a lot of fun to act these stories out during the day with props and costumes.

Send notes (even online) to parents and friends. At first, the child can dictate what he/she wants to say. Later, he/she can write it alone.

References

Block, Cathy Collins, & Pressley, Michael. (Eds.). (2002). Comprehension Instruction: Research-Based Best Practices. New York: The Guilford Press.

Brody, Sara. (2001). Teaching Reading: Language, Letters & Thought Milford, NH: LARC Publishing.

California Department of Education. (1999). Reading/Language Arts Framework for California Public Schools: Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. Sacramento, CA: Author.

O'Connor, R.E., Notari-Syverson, N., & Vadasy, P. (1998). Ladders to literacy: A KINDERGARTEN activity book. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Yopp, Ruth Helen, & Yopp, Hallie Kay. (1996). Literature-Based Reading Activities Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Based on a numerous studies on how learning takes place at an early age, it is readily apparent that children need a balanced, comprehensive approach to reading and writing instruction. Balanced literacy instruction is characterized by effective and purposeful literacy lessons and activities that offer the children both the skills and motivation to become proficient readers and writers.

The main reading ingredients are:

Reading: Recognizing the vehicles for reading, including books, magazines, signs, and computers, for example. Learning how to use these vehicles and understanding the rudiments of letters, words, and sentences.

Phonics: The beginning understanding that words have individual sounds. Students start to acquire the ability to connect spoken sounds and words and then the letters that make up these words by learning the letters of the alphabet and their application.

Vocabulary: Students learn that each word has specific meaning(s) that are understood by themselves and others around them. As children get older, their vocabulary is continually increased through spoken, written and reading activities. This goes hand-in-hand with spelling and comprehension. Beginning levels of vocabulary subskills, such as opposites.

Fluency: This is only at the rudimentary level in kindergarten. It is the ability to read with expression and recognize the punctuation cues for intonation.

Comprehension: Children begin to acquire the understanding of both the written text and oral communication. Comprehension is enhanced by before, during reading, and after reading. The student also furthers understanding and importance of order of actions taken. This also includes an emphasis on listening skills and following directions.

Kindergarten writing consists of developing a children's fine motor skills, small muscles of the hands, which allow them to make clear and accurate movements that are necessary to form letters and improve hand/eye coordination. The emphasis is again on both acquiring the interest in and value of writing as well as learning the skills.

Prewriting: Lessons on handwriting sheets including the fundamentals of writing, such as curves, zigzags, circles and the like.

Writing: Writing exercises that include learning the letters and elementary words, as well as practicing handwriting itself.

Storytelling: Children begin to keep a journal, writing down the new words they learn or drawing pictures, forming words to remember something that happened.

Meaning: Abstract words become more tangible by placing them into sentences, which children can fill with pictures or, as time progresses, words. For example: "I saw a ____" Teacher puts class homework on the blackboard everyday. Students notes and school memos can be read out loud by the teacher. At the beginning of the day, students can brainstorm a sentence or two that covers the day's activities. Items in the room are labeled.

At all times, the teacher has to make sure of striking a balance between reading and writing. Many teachers try to allocate so much time to each of these skills. However, they go together; when learning one, the other one is being taught, as well. The goal is to integrate the learning abilities as much as possible, since they are never used by themselves in real life.

References

Feldgus, E., & Cardonick, I. (1999). Kid writing: A systematic approach to phonics, journals, and writing workshop. Bothell, WA: Wright Group.

Fletcher, R., & Portalupi, J. (2001). Writing workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

McCarrier, a., Pinnell, G.S., & Fountas, I.C. (2000). Interactive writing. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Mooney, M. (2000) Revisiting shared reading. New York: Stenhouse.

Smith, F (2003). Subtitle: Flaws and Fallacies in "Scientific" Reading Instruction. Portsmuth, NH: Heineman.

Reading with children and helping them practice particular components can significantly enhance their ability to read. Studies show that there are five essential aspects of reading that children must be taught in order to learn to read. The No Child Left Behind Act lists these five fundamentals of reading. They are:

Phonemic awareness, or recognizing and using individual sounds to create words. This is important, because children must learn how to hear sounds in words and that phonemes or the smallest parts of sound make up these words.

Phonics, or understanding the relationships between written letters and spoken sounds. Children have to learn the sounds that individual printed letters and groups of letters make. This helps them accurately recognize familiar words immediately decode new words.

Reading fluency, or developing the ability to read a text correctly, so that the children can understand what is read. When fluent readers read to themselves, they automatically recognize the words, and when they read out loud, they can do so with minimal effort and expression. Children who are weak in fluency read slowly and word by word, and focus on decoding rather than comprehension.

Vocabulary development, or being taught the pronunciation and meaning of words. Children must actively grow and expand their knowledge of written and spoken words, their meaning and use.

Reading or comprehension strategies, or ways to learn for understanding, remembering and communicating what is read. Children need to be taught comprehension methods, or the constructive steps to take to ensure understanding. Those who control their own reading comprehension become active, effective readers.

Effective education comes from striking the right balance in the amount of efforts and resources for covering these five components. As noted previously, the components naturally go together as a unified package, as well… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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