Research Paper: Diabetes According to Waryasz

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[. . .] Boussageon et al. (2012) assert T2DM is a major health issue given its economic costs and cardiovascular complications.

T2DM is an independent risk aspect for cardiovascular diseases and the rate of these diseases is twice higher in diabetic patients compared to non-diabetic patients. The participants included in Boussageon et al. (2012) study demonstrated ineffectiveness of diet alone therapy as well as the effectiveness and ineffectiveness of metformin treatment. Metformin demonstrated a decline of all-cause mortality in overweight patients. The general results indicated that metformin did not affect the primary ends. The main aim of the study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of metformin in the treatment of T2DM, and the study indicated no proof of the benefits of metformin as regards cardiovascular or all-cause mortality and all diabetes macros-vascular effects.

While metformin lowers the rate of all-cause mortality by 25%, it increases the rate of cardiovascular mortality by 64%. This is a clear indication that medical therapy alone cannot lower the risk factors and mortality rate linked T2DM. Moreover, Boussageon et al. (2012) confirmed that metformin holds no proven effectiveness against microvascular complications. Insulin therapy is also a linkage to a rise in all-cause mortality particularly for patients with heart failure. As a result, insulin therapy and metformin and other medical therapies in the management of T2DM are not effective, they increase the occurrence of cardiovascular death. The only remedy for the treatment of T2DM is involvement of physical exercise, healthy lifestyles, and healthy eating habits alongside medical therapies that calls for self-care management.

Wang & Yeh (2011) utilized a mixed-method systematic review of the effectiveness of insulin treatment in adults with T2DM. While the advantages of insulin in patients with diabetes exist, setbacks in transition to insulin treatment are evident. The researchers ascertained that comprehending the obstacles to insulin from the viewpoint of clients offer information that enhances effective and appropriate care. Wang & Yeh (2012) conducted a review of studies carried out by different researchers and 16 research articles were consulted. The researchers confirmed that most patients with type 2 diabetes do not see the significance of insulin and they actively search for the means to control blood sugars without insulin. People hold holistic attitudes towards upshot of insulin and they view insulin therapy as less practical. Wang & Yeh (2012) assert that most patients with T2DM require insulin therapy given the progressive temperament of their disease. Between 5 and 10% of patients with T2DM experiences failure of oral hypoglycemic agents, require insulin treatment.

However, there is a delay in changing to insulin treatment among patients with T2DM and delay in insulin treatment causes an extensive period of hyperglycemia that augments the probability of complications. According to Wang & Yeh (2012), insulin therapy can cause problems, which include blindness, and as a result, most patients with T2DM prefer seeking other alternative methods to control their blood sugar through embracing self-care. The main objective of medical management of T2DM is to attain an optimal level of blood sugar, which can be controlled through healthy behaviors, healthy eating habits and healthy exercises.

Patients involved in one of the studies cited by Wang and Yeh (2012) indicated that they suffer psychologically because insulin fails to enhance subjective life quality and feeling. The effectiveness of insulin is rated as below average. Other recipients indicated that prescribed insulin depicted that their disease has shifted into a critical phase, an aspect that psychologically, emotionally and socially affects them consequently hindering the effectiveness of insulin. From this perspective, patients should use less emotive, psychologically and socially hurting means to control their blood sugar levels in efforts of managing type two diabetes bearing in mind that T2DM is linked to being overweight and obese.

Karin et al. (2002) conducted a survey on U.S. citizens with type 2 diabetes to determine compliance with physical activities and healthy eating guidelines. The qualitative research engaged multistate and study sample includes African-Americans and Mexican-Americans. Interviews and laboratory tests were used in sample selection where out of 20, 005 selected, 1, 608 individuals had diabetes. While 1, 480 of the selected samples had T2DM and they were obese or overweight. The researchers assessed data from 1, 480 persons beyond seventeen years diagnosed with T2DM. The results from the study indicated that self-care which entails regular exercise, healthy behaviors and healthy diets enhances glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes. The researchers aimed at ascertaining the benefits and significance of vegetables, fruits and physical activities in the treatment and management of T2DM. Karin et al. (2012) assert that exercise and diet are viewed as important elements of the treatment strategy for individuals with type 2 diabetes. While there is some disagreement over the finest diet for adults with T2DM, there is agreement to augment consumption of vegetables and fruits and lower eating of saturated fats. Moderate-intensity exercise for thirty minutes, five times a week is recommendable for patients with T2DM.

In a study cited by Karin et al. (2002), involving 2000 people with diabetes indicated that the most regularly reported obstacles in the management of T2DM were devoted to exercise and diet. Only sixty percent of persons with diabetes follow a diabetic diet. This is as per findings from the National Health Interview and other studies conducted in the U.S., which indicated that nutrient consumption among persons with diabetes is suboptimal and this increases the number of deaths linked to diabetes and its complications. According to Karin et al. (2002), the majority of persons with diabetes do not attain the national physical exercise goals. However, Karin et at. (2002) claim that the present challenge in management of T2DM is interpreting research results into routine public health and clinical practice efforts to enhance health upshots for all patients with T2DM.

Application

T2DM is a life long disease and it demonstrates the ineffectiveness in use of insulin in the body. Most patients with type 2 diabetes are obese or overweight. While medical therapy helps in the management of this illness, patients should learn to manage this illness through staying healthy and adapting self-managed care. Steps in self-managed care for patients with type 2 diabetes include monitoring their blood sugar levels through hemoglobin A1c and other measures, exercising and eating a healthy diet. Patients should also use their medicines as prescribed by their doctors. Constant blood and other tests assist patients in making sure that their cholesterol and blood sugar levels remain within the healthy and normal range. Foods with carbohydrates and sugar besides alcohol raise blood sugar and so patients are required to monitor their daily intake of carbohydrates and sugary foods.

A dietician nurse practitioner can help patients with type 2 diabetes in understanding how to make appropriate food choices. Eating a balanced meal with fiber and protein is recommendable for self-management of type 2 diabetes. Fresh and healthy foods with accurate timings without eating a lot of foods during one meal is recommendable. Managing one's weight and maintaining healthy eating, conducts and lifestyles are paramount. Weight managing entails frequent exercises as these exercises reduce blood sugar besides enhancing blood flow and pressure. Exercises facilitate burning of extra fat and calories besides addressing stress.

Findings from the reviewed literature confirm the significance of self-care management program in managing type 2 diabetes. Self-managed care helps in reducing risk factors and deaths linked to type 2 diabetes. Self-care management entails healthy eating behaviors and conducts, healthy lifestyles that include exercises, using drugs as prescribed, frequent blood sugar checks and regularly seeking advice from professional nurses and doctors. Weight management is paramount in controlling the adverse effects of T2DM and in treating the disease. This is because T2DM is linked to obesity and overweight's, which consequently increases the risks of stroke, heart failure and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity is believed to a resultant of unhealthy eating habits and lack of enough physical activities. Eating of junk foods with less physical activities is a major cause of obesity, and it therefore becomes evident that obesity and overweight management and prevention is an individual's responsibility through self-care management. As much as the society and medical fraternity may try to seek for ways to prevent T2DM, the medical fraternity and the society as a whole cannot be able to influence an individual's choice of food, lifestyles and behaviors. Treating, managing and preventing T2DM depends on a person's willingness to change, adopt a healthy living standards, healthy lifestyles, and healthy eating habits besides using drugs as prescribed. Therefore, self-care management compared to medical or counseling therapy is effective in treating, managing and controlling blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.

References

Boussageon R, Supper I, Bejan-Angoulvant T, Kellou N, Cucherat M, et al. (2012).Reappraisal of metformin efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS Med, 9(4): e1001204. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001204.

Karin et al.(2002). Diet and exercise among adults with type 2 diabetes: Findings from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Diabetes According to Waryasz.  (2013, July 21).  Retrieved July 18, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/diabetes-according-waryasz/2570945

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