Differential Neuropsychological Patterns of Frontal Variant Frontotemporal Dementia Term Paper

Pages: 7 (2586 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 7  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: Master's  ·  Topic: Psychology

Therefore, FTD has adverse effects on life, and lack of appropriate therapeutic technique or approach means that people cannot cope with life (Matuszewski et al., 2006).

Leisure Time

FTD, as seen in the previous sections of this study has adverse influences on the well-being of a person. This means that the person cannot cope with life when compared to the other people (Matuszewski et al., 2006). Apparently, such people tend to spend most of their time alone, become antisocial, and hardly capacitated to perform any task independently. Therefore, during their leisure time, they are not even aware of such. Instead, they engage in childlike behaviors, and inappropriate social behaviors. This means that they cannot use their leisure time with people because they lack control of their cognitive abilities. In addition, the damage on the frontal lobe means that they fall short of associative abilities, which are important in socialization, and other activities (Giovagnoli et al., 2007).

Occupational Therapy

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Therapists agree that there is no therapeutic approach, which is effective in the management of FTD. Although the disorder has no cure, therapists have suggested that it is important to access patient's muscle strength, swallowing capability and gait balance to enhance functionalities in the course of disorder (Johnson, Griffin, & McArthur, 2006). Occupation therapy is a profession, which is the core to the provision of help to others through a holistic approach. The term occupation describes the daily activities that the therapists engage an effort to provide care to patients in need (American Occupational Therapy Association, 2002). In the management of FTD, occupational therapists prefer to have a broad view of the patient.

Term Paper on Differential Neuropsychological Patterns of Frontal Variant Frontotemporal Dementia Assignment

This includes the use of other people such as a family, or any other person who has an insight into the patient's problem. In addition, there are many considerations to make when dealing with FTD, especially because of the clinical aspect of the disorder (Jicha & Nelson, 2011). Therapists often check for the cognitive symptoms that arise from the disorder, and use a cognitive management approach, specifically to manage the cognitive disabilities. Cognitive management involves cognitive training, cognitive simulation, and cognitive rehabilitation. In simulation, patients take part in engagement activities, which are often enjoyable.

In training, the patient often practice speech repetition, which might be computer assisted or group based. In rehabilitation, the patient sets their own goals, which they opt to fulfill. The therapists focus on cognitive symptoms such as dysexecutive, attention, or language symptoms (Jicha & Nelson, 2011). Moreover, therapists often recommend pharmacological interventions and this includes the use of galantamine, or rivastigimine, which can treat behavioral changes in the patients. However, patients should undergo evaluation after six months of using the drugs to establish whether the patients have changed the behaviors associated with FTD. In medical management approach, therapists often confuse FTD with AZ.

Owing to this, there is a need to conduct further research to find appropriate approaches (Johnson, Griffin & McArthur, 2006). The proposed working medical management of FTD is through SSRI (Atchinson & Dirette, 2007). Some studies have provided evidence that targeting the neurotransmitters system have shown substantial benefits in managing FTD. Alternatively, occupational therapists follow a systematic approach, which includes the overall anticipated outcomes for the patient in determining whether the therapist is in any way achieving the results; improvement from the part of the patient.

In such, occupational therapists are helping caregivers to modify routine tasks to stress the positive elements of care and this is a way to promote the occupational performance of the caregivers. For instance, caregivers are trained on how to choose and grade routine activities to help the patients adjust to social demands (Donovan & Corcoran, 2010). This includes humor to reduce anxiety, develop communication and socio-emotional capabilities. Most importantly, they approach the FTD disorder with an engagement, and motivation, which is central to the patient's needs (American Occupational Therapy Association, 2002).


FTD is the second most widespread type of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. It shows similar characteristics to the latter, and studies have stated that executive function assessment should not be core to the distinguishing of the two disorders because they influence the executive functions in a similar way. Nonetheless, FTD is a disorder, which can result to adverse effects on the well-being of an individual, regardless of the status of a person. It is severe, and evidence has shown that it increases with age. Currently, therapists suggest there is a need for further research to develop working interventions.

This is because of the complex roles performed by the frontal and temporal lobes, especially their involvement in executive functions, as evident in the study. However, many occupational therapists have suggested that approaching the FTD disorder comprehensively is important because it has shown positive results in the management of dementia. In this context, the approach is in the context of enhancing social capabilities of the patients. Donovan & Corcoran (2010) show that helping the patients to conduct routine activities on their own; can play an important role in intervening as an approach to manage FTD.


American Occupational Therapy Association. (2002). Occupational therapy practice framework:

Domain and process. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 56, 609 -- 639.

Atchinson, B., & Dirette, K.D. (2007). Conditions in occupational therapy: Effect on occupational performance. ISBN: 0781754879, 9780781754873: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

DiZazzo-Miller, R. et al. (2014). Addressing everyday challenges: Feasibility of a family caregiver training program for people with dementia. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68, 212-220.

Donovan, L.M., & Corcoran, A.M. (2010). Description of dementia caregiver uplifts and implications for occupational therapy. The American journal of occupational therapy, 64(4), 590- 595.

Giovagnoli, R.A. (2008). Differential neuropsychological patterns of frontal variant frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a study of diagnostic concordance. Neuropsychologia, 46 (2008), 1495-1504

Griffin, W.J., Johnson, T.R., & McArthur, C.J. (2007). Current therapy in neurologic disease.

ISBN: 0323034322, 9780323034326: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Jicha, A.G., & Nelson, T.P. (2011). Management of frontotemporal dementia: targeting symptom management in such a heterogeneous disease requires a wide range of therapeutic options. Neurodegener Dis Mana, 1(2), 141-156.

Malloy, P. et al. (2007).The Frontal Systems Behavior Scale discriminates frontotemporal dementia from Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia, (2007), 200 -- 203.

Matuszewski, V. et al. (2006). Retrieval mechanisms for autobiographical memories: Insights from the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia. Neuropsychologia, 44(2006), 2386-2397.

Piolino, P. et al. (2007). In search of autobiographical memories: A PET study in the frontal variant of frontotemporal dementia. Neuropsychologia, 4 (2007), 2730 -- 2743.

Riedjik, S.R. et… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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