Diffusion of Innovation #2 in 1962 Article Review

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Diffusion of Innovation #2

In 1962, sociologist Everett Rogers, popularized the theory of diffusion of innovations which seeks to explain the how's and why's and rates that new ideas and technology spreads through culture. Rogers believed that diffusion is the process in which innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a culture. Depending on that culture, diffusion of different innovations are varied and may span across multiple disciplines. There are three types of innovations-decisions that help spread diffusion: 1) Optional Innovation-Decision -- made by an individual that is distinguished within a social system;

Collective Innovation-Decision -- made by all individuals within that system; and, 3) Authority Innovation-Decision -- made for the entire system by individuals in power. Once the decision and innovation is made, Rogers finds that there is a five-step process in which the new innovation or technology may take to become adopted by members of society:

Knowledge -- Individuals are exposed to innovations but lack information; there is building interest, but no real inspiration to adopt.

Persuasion -- Individuals become more intrigued about innovation and actively seek more details and information about the innovation.

Decision -- Individuals weight the pluses and minuses of the innovation and decide whether to adopt or reject.

Implementation -- Individuals use the innovation in varying degrees depending on the situation; they communicate with one another and weigh the overall usefulness of the innovation.

Confirmation -- Individuals finalize the decision and either continue to use the innovation or reject it completely and the process starts anew (Rogers, 2003).

Article Reviews

European Shopping Models in Asia

Carrefour Quietly Launches Online Shopping Service in China. (December 19, 2006).

China Tech News. Cited in: http://www.chinatechnews.com/2006/12/19/4751-carrefour-quietly-launches-online-shopping-service-in-china

Tags: globalism, Chinese markets, European Union, Carrefour, online shopping, marketing in asia

Carrefour is an international hypermarket chain store located in France. It is one of the largest hypermarket chains in the world, and the second largest global retail group in terms of revenue, third largest after Wal-Mart. In operates mainly in Europe, some South American and Central American countries, but most recently moved into China and Asia based on the development of those markets. Carrefour is interesting because it innately uses a six tiered approach within its European Market. This approach believes in maximizing service through: 1) low prices, 2) self-service when possible, 3) one-stop shopping, 4) high-quality products, 5) freshness, and 6) free parking. Each of these concepts is very Euro-centric, and not always translatable to an Asian culture, however. Diffusion to Asia remains challenging and is a superb example of hesitancy in a new market.

Supersonic Transport Fails to Connect with Consumers - Concord Retires. (2003). Cited in: http://www.concordesst.com/retire/faq_r.html

Tags: Aviation, supersonic transport, Concorde, British Airways, FAA, airline regulation

Technology, even some that is diffused and seems to be adopted by some of society is not always a long-term success. Such was the result of an aircraft that can transport passengers at speeds greater than the speed of sound, the SST. This technology operated profitably for about 25 years in the guise of flights from New York and Newark to London via The Concorde. There are several reasons it no longer is used, and is yet back on the drawing board for future aircraft -- and example of a product that was initially quite enthusiastically adopted and diffused, but when other inventions on a lesser level (different Boeing or Airbus models) showed more efficiency, lesser noise, and a far lower cost, the public dropped its… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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