Term Paper: Dimensional Man

Pages: 14 (5336 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 1+  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Sociology  ·  Buy This Paper


[. . .] The Critical Theory of Herbert Marcuse seems not have avoided the essence of topicality with the resulting crisis of the society that is also a crisis of the left and of Marxism. Conversely the degeneration of Soviet-system has revealed that the capitalism is not the better substitute that indicates the 'socialism' and also the western forms of capitalism are not the sustainable form of society. This is quite evident from the spreading up of the global problems. (On the Topicality of Selected Aspects of Herbert Marcuse's Works)

Marcuse resolutely criticizes the restrictions of bourgeois democracy based on private property as well as social and economic inequality. He emphasized the combination of enhanced productivity and increasing destruction, the resulting human society at the threshold of annihilation, the yielding of thought, hope and fear to the commands of the authority considered to be the accumulation of misery in the face of unparalleled wealth that comprise of the most impartial denunciation, its far-reaching rationality, that drifts efficiency and growth is self contradictory. According to him the automation and separation of the working class, the legislation of the capitalist state generated to defend private property and the function of the repressive state apparatus found in the aggressive restriction of any practical application of democratic rights and freedom in the mechanized democracies. (On the Absolute Rational Will)

Marcuse illustrates on the works of Marx mainly as his study concentrates on the manner in which the economy restricts the capability of individuals. According to Mascuse, individuals are in bondage since they operate within the framework like the economy. If individuals were genuinely liberated, they might have been without the clutches from these systems. For instance, individuals would just be obliged to be engaged for the barest minimum to meet for their wants, not a conventional quantity of time. He declares that when they are able to liberate from these systems, they will be able to find out what their genuine requirements or desires are. Since, we are yet to be liberated; we possess "fake wants." These wants are typified by the array of preferences that are presented in our economy. But, every of these options strengthen the social rule which is present at the moment. Since every option possesses the identical outcome, there is no true option.

According to Marcuse, increasingly sophisticated societies are welfare/welfare states. Welfare states curtail liberty as they restrict free time, availing required products and services and the capability of the citizens to understand genuine independence. The welfare state obstructs a genuine study of society as it allows individuals who are concentrated on combating the "foe" instead of concentrating on domestic social crisis. Marcuse's study of more sophisticated societies is precise and helpful. But he is unable to give a genuine answer to the difficulties he puts forth. His argument appears to be that in case societies are capable of being taught to use technologies in manners that are advantageous for the citizens, in place of confining them, the crisis of human beings will be cracked. (Hebert Marcuse: One-Dimensional Man)

After deliberating on the political unification of sophisticated industrial society, an accomplishment made likely by mounting technological efficiency and the increasing invasion of humans and nature, we will at present shift our attention to an equivalent unification in the sphere of culture. The accomplishments and the disappointments of this society annul its advanced culture. The thing which is occurring at the moment is not the worsening of advanced culture into mass culture nevertheless the repudiation of this culture by the actuality. The actuality exceeds its culture. Currently humans are able to perform more than culture heros and demi-gods; he has unraveled a lot of mysterious problems. However, he has even deceived the hope and shattered the reality that was conserved in the sublimations of advanced culture. (The Conquest of the Unhappy Consciousness: Repressive Desublimation)

In order to be certain, the advanced culture was all the time in disagreement with social truth and just a fortunate minority benefited from its blessing and stood for its principles. The two opposing realms of society have all the time existed in tandem; the superior culture has all the time been obliging, when the truth was sparingly bothered by its principles and its facts. The current era's new characteristic is the loosing steam of enmity between culture and social truth by the destruction of the hostile, foreign and inspirational essentials in the superior culture through the merit of which it formed another dimension of truth. The bankruptcy of the two-dimensional culture happens not by way of negation and refusal of the "cultural values," nevertheless through their complete inclusion into the customary order, by way of their creation and exhibition on an enormous level. Indeed, they cater as tools of social unity. (The Conquest of the Unhappy Consciousness: Repressive Desublimation)

Conventional Marxism as well as postmodernism is not able to understand the vibrant nature of the cultural and economic procedure forming the awareness of the bourgeois theme. Conventional Marxists have a propensity to discern the procedure from a trans-historical viewpoint; class disagreement within a perspective of financial determinism, and to tackle with the bourgeois theme through creation of its own "socialist man." Postmodernism, to a huge degree, looks to elude the crisis by doing away with the topic on the whole. The two teams are not able to bring out an analysis of the procedure and the two are unable to translate what they comprehend into an awareness that is able to thwarting bourgeois. The automated procedure of manufacturing of delayed capitalism facilitates a complete manner of life which moulds individual into estranged customer and lessens every personal and social principles to economic product. The sole expectation for re-thinking remaining is to nurture susceptibility of liberation that makes novel potential and novel paths of life. (One-Dimensional Man in the Postmodern Age)

In One-Dimensional Man, Marcuse interrogates the Marxian hypothesis of the groundbreaking working class and certainty of capitalist predicament through the study of the amalgamation of the industrial working class into capitalist culture and fresh types of capitalist balancing. As opposed to conventional Marxism, Marcuse supported fragment groups of minorities, strangers, and sweeping intellectuals in an effort to encourage conflicting idea and conduct by means of encouraging sweeping feelings and resistance. It persuaded many in the New Left even with its pessimism because it expressed their rising displeasure with both capitalist societies and Soviet communist societies. (One-Dimensional Man: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

Marcuse claims that contemporary, capitalist society has turn out to be one-dimensional, a society with no resistance, but subjugated by planned forces that restrict conflict, alternative, and assessment. This society is not apparently authoritarian as there seems to be equality, freedom, and autonomy in it, but real resistance and sweeping transforms are shut owing to the manners this society is prearranged; the society seems approachable and liberal but is capable of sucking up disagreement and resistance and formulation is communally hopeless or unproductive. A fiscal system that can give enough goods and services to satisfy the requirements of members of the society is the foundation for real human liberty as per Marcuse. More and more societies are able to give this much more compared to past societies with their restricted industrious capability. (Sociology 319: Herbert Marcuse)

However, the related consequences of this contain a dampening of the vital features of personality, thinking, and political antagonism. To a certain extent, disagreement, antagonism, and peculiarity can be contained within the system by restraining the variety of choices that are accessible. Even though these restrictions on liberty may appear as a segment of authoritarian political and communal makeup, as per Marcuse, there may be small distinction among supposedly free and elected societies and those that are authoritarian. The increased output of modern types of economic manufacturing could result in the likelihood of true liberty thereby people would not be restricted by the needs to manufacture the essentials of life. Instead, such beneficial possibility could make a fresh type of human liberty, where the person would be open to exercise independence over a life that would be his own and this would make real independence achievable for the person. (Sociology 319: Herbert Marcuse)

In highly developed industrial civilization a calm, even, sensible, democratic dependence exists, which is an indication of technical progress. Undoubtedly nothing is more sensible than the containment of independence in the automation of socially essential but agonizing feats; the ruling of free rivalry among unevenly prepared economic subjects; the intensity of individual enterprises in more efficient, more prolific corporations; the limitation of privileges and national sovereignties which obstruct the international organization of resources. That this technological regulation also includes a political and scholarly harmonization may be an unfortunate and yet potential growth. To the level… [END OF PREVIEW]

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