Disclosure This Report Represents a Concept Analysis Term Paper

Pages: 8 (2798 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: ≈ 9  ·  File: .docx  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Sports - Women


This report represents a concept analysis on disclosure. The objective is to gain an in-dept understanding on the concept of disclosure and to define what it represents as well as what it does not represent. The focus and motivation is to define a foundation for future exploring, measuring, and testing the idea in regard to a full dissertation on abused pregnant women. The report outline can be attributed to Avant and Walker's Strategies for Theory Construction in Nursing and therefore provides a brief discussion of the overall concept and insights into why this topic was selected and how it relates to nursing as well as abused pregnant women. The format then discusses the inherent literature search process and attempts to identify possible uses of the concept including non-nursing literature. Next is an attempt to determine the defining attributes of the concept and then to try to construct cases for the concept such as: Model, Borderline, Related, Contrary, Invented, and Illegitimate. The report then attempts to identify some antecedents and/or consequences of the concept as well as to try to identify empirical referents related to the concept. For the reports conclusion, it briefly discusses how the theoretical framework used relates to the original concept.

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Similar to the idea behind concepts, theories should be classified by how abstract they are as compared to a continuum of grand theories to practice theories. Thus, theories that are considered grand are overly broad and too abstract and therefore can not always lend themselves to scientific application and/or testing. However, narrow range theories would be overly precise and therefore restrictive in their overall focus. Because medicine in general can be considered an atheoretical science, so concepts, statements and theories must be developed through analysis, synthesis and derivation. This report is attempting to meet the problem halfway. "Mid-range theories go some way to solving this problem. They are moderately abstract and inclusive but are composed of concepts and propositions that are measurable. Therefore, mid-range theories, at their best, balance the need for precision with the need to be sufficiently abstract." (McKenna, 1997)

Concept Discussion

Term Paper on Disclosure This Report Represents a Concept Analysis Assignment

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and its companion regulations require the medical community to prevent the disclosure of confidential patient information. These regulations require organizations and their employees to do detailed risk analysis so as not to unwittingly pass on or unknowingly discuss anything that could open up any unauthorized confidential information. The problem the medical community face is that some information could greatly enhance the patient care aspects of the profession but that information is now unusable.

There are many concepts that are very meaningful to society. Consider the many theories available for study, "... include: a theory of menstrual care, a theory of family care-giving, a theory of relapse among ex-smokers, a theory of uncertainty in illness, a theory of the perimenopausal process, a theory of self-transcendence, a theory of personal risking and a theory of illness trajectory." (McKenna, 1997) Throughout world history, theories have also focused on gender related inequality and inequity which are prominent. "Immigrants' rights activists, the domestic violence movement, women's rights organizations, and service providers are increasing their efforts to build networks and coalitions in their own communities, as well as across the country." (Volpp, Leti, "Working With Battered Women -- A Handbook to Make Services Accessible, Part 6" 1995)

Domestic violence in the United States and the world is on the rise. "As many as 46,000 German women are estimated to spend some time at women's refuges every year because of domestic violence." (World: Europe, Germany Gets Tough On Domestic Violence) In the United States, domestic violence is the primary reason women and children are homeless. "Domestic violence and sexual assault occur frequently in the United States. 1,500,000 women are raped or physically assaulted by an intimate partner annually in the United States, and 1 in 4 women in the United States will experience domestic violence or sexual assault in her lifetime." (Domestic Violence in the United States)

But honing in on actual victims of domestic violence brings a surprising detail to the surface and in our technologically advanced globally driven world. One such societal oversight revolves around the abuses being regularly suffered by the world's pregnant women. The overall media hype touts that things have been getting better for women but the recent murder of a young pregnant woman named Lacy Peterson has brought a new focus on a situation that is in reality near epidemic proportions. From a nursing perspective, a strategy needs to be developed that will help examine the attributes and characteristics of abuses being suffered by pregnant women. How best can the medical community and nursing in general help similar victims in a timely fashion while adhering to the concepts associated with disclosure?

Discuss Literature Search Process

To address the problem of pregnant women's abuses, a detailed literature search process would be in order. The approach would need to be comprehensive and systematic and the idea of creating a detailed protocol would help guide the literature search process. The search would begin by attempting to identify relevant journals, organizations, and experts. From there the process would revolve around searching with a detailed strategy and collecting studies by:

Hand Searches: hand search core journals relevant to the topic

Electronic Databases: identify keywords and search a variety of electronic databases for relevant studies

Submissions: incorporate studies and student journal

Website Searches: search websites for core and topic-relevant organizations and relevant studies

Extensive Outreach: contact topic experts and relevant organizations to request studies and statistics as well as to request recommendations of potential interview subjects

Determine the Defining Attributes

It is critical to clearly define the attributes associated with the aspects of this idea. The first is the concept of disclosure itself which will be driven by the legal community. The second attribute structure would revolve around the pregnant women abused in a scientifically significant way. "Walker and Avant maintained that mid-range theories balance this specificity with the conceptual economy normally seen in grand theories. As a result mid-range theories provide nurses with the 'best of both worlds ' - easy applicability in practice and abstract enough to be scientifically interesting. Thus, the attributes associated with pregnant women's abuses would be of a relatively broad scope of phenomena and would not cover the full range of phenomena that could be of concern in this discipline.

Thus the attributes would focus on only the medical aspects such as caring for the victim and the fetus after a physical abuse as opposed to a full blown research on stopping or controlling all aspects associated with pregnant women's abuses. This mid-range theory for nursing on medical care after a pregnant woman is abused is broader than a theory of abdominal blows but narrower than the goal of stopping all abuse. By establishing attributes in the Mid-range theory will help the report focus on concepts of interest to nurses that are more readily applicable in direct care situations. Domestic Abuse involving pregnancy is a large sample. "Battering often occurs during pregnancy. One study found that 37% of pregnant women, across all class, race, and educational lines, were physically abused during pregnancy. 60% of all battered women are beaten while they are pregnant." (Women's Rural Advocacy Programs, 2005)

Abuse has a specific definition according to the Women's Rural Advocacy Programs. The attributes of abuse include:

Physical: slapping, pushing, hitting, kicking, biting, etc.

Emotional: name-calling, putting down, insults, etc.

Sexual: being forced into sexual contact

Threats: "If you...I'll kill you!"

Intimidation: gestures, looks, smashing things

Isolation: being kept from seeing or talking to others, not allowed to go out.

Economic: being given an allowance, not allowed to have a job, etc.

The attributes for this theory would therefore hone in on only physical abuses of pregnant women which entails slapping, pushing, hitting, kicking, biting, etc. And in some instances only the attributes would also include sexual abuse such as physical rape.

In the same light, the information gathering aspects surrounding domestic abuse with highlight to pregnancy would need a methodology for identifying cases of unauthorized disclosure and thus eliminating speculation about possible but not yet realized threats or vulnerabilities. It would be important to establish attributes that detail the probability of information hazards and to show relationships of unauthorized disclosures pertaining to pregnant domestic situations from the vast database of incidences of unauthorized disclosures.

Model, Borderline, Related, Contrary, Invented, and Illegitimate

The model or the concept to best present an understanding about disclosure as it pertains to domestic abuse on pregnant women can be filtered. Like the risks associated with disclosure abuses, domestic violence seems to be a repetitious cycle that is difficult if not impossible in some situations to break. As demonstrated by the high number of refuge cases throughout the United States and the recent Peterson scenario, most abused individuals have found out that the only way to break the vicious cycle of abuse is leaving the abusive relationship or death. Typically, after each… [END OF PREVIEW] . . . READ MORE

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