Lab Report: Discovering Statistics Music Valence

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[. . .] Just by looking at the data it is apparent that there could be significant differences between different conditions. The arithmetic means are shown graphically in Figure 1 and the difference between genders is statistically significant [F (1, 24) = 140.8, p < .001). The interaction between gender and music groups was also significant [F (2, 24) = 11.8, p < 0.001], with the strongest difference between genders being the 2-fold increase in recall performance by women listening to rock music [t (4) = 6.72, p = .002, two-tailed]. Women also did better than men when listening to classical music [t (4) = 11.39, p < .001], but performed equally well without music [t (4) = 0.77, p = .49] However, overall the only condition that resulted in better memory performance was women listening to rock music.

Within gender, the recall performance of men suffered the most when listening to classical music [Classical vs. Control: t (4) = 7.03, p < .001] and did not significantly benefit from listening to rock music [Classical vs. Rock: t (4) = 2.26, p = .072]. By comparison, women performed equally well whether listening to classical music or no music [Classical vs. Control: t (4) = 1.15, p = .28], but benefitted significantly from listening to rock music [Rock vs. Control: t (4) = 3.25, p = .01].

Overall, the differences between the three groups were statistically significant [F (2, 24) = 17.5, p < .001] as can be seen graphically in Figure 2. The difference between the rock and control groups [t (9) = 1.19, p = .26] was not statistically significant, suggesting rock music provides no overall benefit in word recall performance; however, classical music significantly attenuated recall performance overall when compared to the control [t (9) = 5.05, p < .001] and rock groups [t (9) = 3.47, p = .007].

Discussion

The results of the current study confirm Rickard and colleagues' (2012) finding that relaxing music attenuates memory performance; however, when the results are stratified by gender, only men were negatively affected by classical music. The theory that arousal significantly impacts learning is therefore supported by this study, but not in the way expected. While men performed poorly when listening to classical music compared to the control and rock music groups, women were not affected by classical music, but outperformed men and other women when listening to rock music. These results suggest that gender influences how arousal impacts memory performance, a result consistent with the role of hormonal regulation of arousal. It would be interesting to test whether the observed gender differences in memory recall performance can be replicated in prepubertal boys and girls.

A more controversial or 'touchy' finding is whether women are already at a reduced state of arousal. If so, then this would explain why the soothing music had no effect on memory performance and rock music provided a large advantage. By comparison, it could be argued that men are immune to the stimulating effects of rock music and more susceptible to relaxing music. However, this interpretation suggests that women have a greater capacity for memory improvement than men.

Appendix

MUSIC AND GENDER INFLUENCE RECALL PERFORMANCE

MUSIC AND GENDER INFLUENCE RECALL PERFORMANCE 11

Word List:

Bubble

Balloon

Advert

Cherish

Inject

Alter

Teacher

Reflect

Escape

Condemn

Filter

Current

Jacket

Estate

Abyss

Mouthful

Spearmint

Conquer

Granule

Water

Eject

Greatest

Despite

Glowing

Caution

Table

Sunshine

Disgust

Rabbit

Talent

Table 1: Raw Data

Classical

Rock

Control

Participants

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

#1

11

9

21

12

7

17

#2

12

7

23

7

15

15

#3

10

7

18

9

17

14

#4

10

7

29

14

12

13

#5

12

7

19

14

15

14

Figure 2: Overall Recall Performance. Y-axis and error bars are the same as in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Gender Differences in Recall Performance. Y-axis represents arithmetic means of correctly recalled words from the list. Error bars represent standard error of the mean.

References

Field, Andy. (2012). Discovering statistics: Experimental project. DiscoveringStatistics.com. Retrieved 9 Dec. 2012 from http://discoveringstatistics.com/docs/project1.pdf.

Hoskins, Tanya. (n.d.). Parametric and nonparametric: Demystifying the terms. Mayo.edu. Retrieved 9 Dec. 2012 from http://www.mayo.edu/mayo-edu-docs/center-for-translational-science-activities-documents/berd-5-6.pdf.

Lifeson, Alex, Lee, Geddy, and… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Discovering Statistics Music Valence.  (2012, December 9).  Retrieved June 16, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/discovering-statistics-music-valence/6731599

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"Discovering Statistics Music Valence."  9 December 2012.  Web.  16 June 2019. <https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/discovering-statistics-music-valence/6731599>.

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"Discovering Statistics Music Valence."  Essaytown.com.  December 9, 2012.  Accessed June 16, 2019.
https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/discovering-statistics-music-valence/6731599.