Term Paper: Diseases I.E. Lung Cancer

Pages: 10 (3195 words)  ·  Bibliography Sources: 10  ·  Level: College Senior  ·  Topic: Disease  ·  Buy This Paper

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[. . .] According to estimation, 30-35% of Americans are fat or obese ("obesity," 2012). The main cause of obesity is the intake of additional calories than the energy requirement as the surplus calories are stocked up in the body as fat. Other factors that may contribute to obesity are immobility and inadequate exercise. Overeating may be a consequence of unhealthy patterns of ingestion ascertained by the family and cultural setting. Obesity may be intensified due to psychological suffering, an emotional reliance on food or the easy access to high-calorie foods ("obesity," 2012).

The major treatments for weight loss include wiring shut the internal parts of mouth, reduction of stomach size via operations and operations related to intestinal bypass in which a the outsized area of the small intestine is circumvented to restrict the area where food is absorbed. However, diet and exercises are mainly focused as the possible treatments for obesity together with emotional and behavioral support ("obesity," 2012). An overweight or obese person can be treated by incorporating a 2-step process i.e. assessment and management. Assessment consists of evaluation of the degree of obesity and health status as a whole. On the other hand, management includes the weight loss and preservation of body weight and other measures for controlling other risk factors. As obesity is a chronic disease, it must be understood by both the patient and practitioner that lifelong effort is the main element for the successful treatment of the disease. There have been definite proofs that demonstrate the benefit of weight loss for the reduction of blood pressure, decline of blood glucose and improvement of dyslipidemias.

Alzheimer's disease

With the aging of the population, Alzheimer disease is turning out to be a health, societal and public well-being concern. It is a type of a dementia that can be described as the "progressive deterioration of thinking abilities severe enough to interfere with social, occupational and intellectual functions that causes severe and permanent loss of intellectual function." Thus, in the same connectiom, the patients having Alzheimer's start to become forgetful and then step forward to have an irretrievable memory (even including their family memories) and other well-learned skills acquired by them in their early lives (Nowotny, Kwon & Goate, 2001). Suffering with Alzheimer's for a few years may result in complete incapability of even the most necessary self-care. Thus, Alzheimer's disease not only affects the patient but also imposes a hefty burden on the family members and communities. In today's contemporary world, Alzheimer disease is particularly the sole cause of late-life dementia. The population that is generally affected by the disease age over sixty-five (Nowotny, Kwon & Goate, 2001).

Alzheimer's disease is nerve cells (present in the cerebral cortex) degenerative disease. The disease may lead to deterioration of the brain and senile dementia. The disease causes problems with remembrance, thought-processes and behavior and therefore, cannot be regarded as a normal part of aging. The disease gets worse with the passage of time. It is distinguished by irregular amassing of plaques and by abnormal nerve cells. Alois Alzheimer was the first to describe these changes in nerve cells in 1906. The plaques form as excessive amounts of amyloid-beta (or beta-amyloid) proteins are released and accumulated. The mentioned are normal proteins. However, their fuction in the body is unknown. The neurofibrillary tangles i.e. The deformed nerve cells put a stop to the carrying of manufactured products within the cell to organelles and target sites ("Alzheimer's disease," 2012).

Proper spread of electrochemical signals that is essential necessary for information dispensation and recovery is also prevented by the malfunctioned nerve cells and plaques. The plaques also smother neurons by slowing down perfect blood supplies from reaching them ("Alzheimer's disease," 2012).

As already mentioned, the people who are generally affected by the Alzheimer's disease are those who are over 65. However, people who have reached 40 can also be affected by the disease. The first sign of the disease is a condition called mild cognitive impairment. In this kind of impairment, the person fails to figure out memories for events that took place a few minutes ago. While symptoms can vary extensively, the first problem noticed by the sufferers is severe absentmindedness that is strong enough to have an effect on their ability to function properly at home or at workplace, or to take pleasure in lifetime hobbies. With the passage of time and progression of the disease, a number of symptoms may come to light that include memory loss, nervousness, uncertainty, bad temper, and impatience, as well as incomprehension, poor judgment and attentiveness, and more rigorous psychological and behavioral disorders ("Alzheimer's disease," 2012).

People who have advanced Alzheimer's are in need of help with essential routine like eating, bathing, changing clothes etc. On the other hand, people who suffer from the final stages of Alzheimer's are unable to communicate properly, stop recognizing loved ones and become bed-bound and dependent on 24/7 care. In case of difficult movement due to Alzheimer's disease, the patients become more at risk of having infections especially pneumonia. Pneumonia can also be a contributing factor to fatality due to Alzheimer's disease.

At the moment, no cure is available for treating Alzheimer's disease. Doctors sometimes advise genetic screening for families who have a record of early Alzheimer's. Treatment includes lessening the patient's signs and easing pressure on caregivers through support groups and counseling services. Patients who have mild to moderate Alzheimer's are sometimes treated with Donepezil (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon), and other acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for providing them temporary improvement. Few of the patients who suffer last stage of Alzheimer's are sometimes treated with Memantine (Namenda) as it provides protection against damage from the effects of surplus glutamate. Thus, it is used for slowing down the progression of the disease ("Alzheimer's disease," 2012).

Literature Reviews of Articles

Current and Future Treatments for Alzheimer's disease

In this article, Yiannopoulou and Papageorgiou have discussed the up-to-date suggestive treatments and latest possible disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease that are being studied at present in phase I -- III trials. In the first part, the authors have given detailed information regarding the current symptomatic approaches to Alzheimer's disease including Cholinesterase inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist and Combination therapy. Next, they have thrown light on the treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer's disease.

After that, the researchers have explained disease-modifying approaches to the mentioned disease including modulation of amyloid deposition, modulation of tau deposition, modulation of inflammation and oxidative damage and modulation of cholesterol and vascular-related risk factors.

Lung Cancer: An Update on Current Surgical Strategies

In this article, the author has explained that Lung Cancer has affected millions of Americans in 2012. He discusses that lung cancer has several stages every one of these stages requires surgical intervention. He believes that the treatment of lung cancer is stage-dependent. Therefore, he requires the surgeons to understand that it is their foremost responsibility to determine the precise stage of the disease.

Later, the author has described staging methods including computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), mediastinoscopy (the gold-standard test) and endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) for the invasive staging of the mediastinum. After that, he describes video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) or robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS) for minimally invasive surgery. In the last part of his article, the author discusses methods of pain management emphasizing on the use of epidural regional analgesia, bladder catheter, gabapentinoids, intravenous anti-inflammatory drugs and acetaminophen and preemptive analgesic techniques.

Measurements of Treatment Response in Childhood Acute Leukemia

In this review, Campana and Coustan-Smith have focused on the relationship between results of different approaches to measure response to treatment. They have also defined the relapse in childhood acute leukemia.

Firstly, they have provided measurements of treatment response in ALL (Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia) and measurements of treatment response in AML (Acute Myeloid Leukemia). Then, they have discussed the useful methods and time points for routine MRD testing in childhood leukemia explaining flow cytometry and PCR amplification of antigen-receptor genes, remission induction therapy and high-speed cell imaging scanning technology as the reliable methods.

The Problem of Overweight and Obesity

In this chapter, obesity has been explained in a detailed manner. After defining the problem of obesity, BMI and graded classification of overweight and obesity are being focused. Later, the author has discussed BMI and body fatness and the variation in the relationship between them. Waist circumference and waist: hip ratio is being discussed in detail and other additional tools for the assessment of obesity including body composition, energy intake, insulin resistance, partitioning of nutrient storage and anatomical distribution of fat are also defined. In order to classify obesity in childhood, the use of growth charts, international childhood reference population, BMI-for-age reference curves are discussed.

Later, the chapter discusses why it is important to gain the knowledge of the level and changing distribution of overweight and obesity. A global overview of secular trends in obesity among adults is being provided. Mostly, the past 10-20 years… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Diseases I.E. Lung Cancer.  (2013, January 28).  Retrieved July 20, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/diseases-e-lung-cancer-childhood/5327279

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https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/diseases-e-lung-cancer-childhood/5327279.