Term Paper: Diseases Vectored by Insects Malaria

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Diseases Vectored by Insects

Malaria and yellow fever are two main diseases, which are transmitted by insects.

Malaria remains an infectious disease, which is caused by Plasmodium, a parasite and infects the red blood cells. The disease is mostly characterized by sweating, fever, chills and pain, muscle aches as well as headaches. Other patients feel nauseated, vomit, cough, and experience diarrhea. The most typical symptoms are chills cycles, sweating and fever that repeats itself after a few days. Malaria parasite called, Plasmodium lifecycle is complicated and comprise of two hosts who are human and the anopheles mosquitoes (Abramowitz, 2006). Malaria is transmitted to human beings when anopheles mosquito, which is infected, bites an individual and injects sporozoites, which is the malaria parasite into their blood. Conversely, Sporozoites travel in the bloodstream all the way to the liver, where they mature and infect the red blood cells of human beings. The parasites tend to develop again while they are in the red blood cells until when a mosquito takes an infected blood meal from a person and ingests the red blood cells, which have the parasites. Later the parasites move to the stomach of Anopheles mosquito and invade the salivary glands of the mosquito. Any time a person is bitten by an Anopheles mosquito, the sporozoites complete as well as repeat the complicated Plasmodium life cycle. Malaria is not infectious and is transmitted to individuals by mosquitoes.

The disease is mostly a problem and a big one in regions such as Asia, Africa, and South America. This means unless a precaution is undertaken a person living or travelling to countries where malaria is common can easily get the disease. Malaria is present in around 100 countries with approximately 40% of the entire world population being at risk for contracting malaria. The incubation period for malaria is around seven to twenty one days. This is the period between, which the mosquito has bitten a person to Malarial illness onset. Reports indicate that incubation period ranges from around four days to even a year. The common incubation period can be increased in a person takes inadequate malaria prevention medications. Conversely, other malaria parasites types take longer to cause symptoms. The parasites remain inactive in the liver cells at this time. Unfortunately, other dormant parasites tend to remain even after one recovers from the disease, which makes it easy for it to recur. Such a situation is often termed as relapsing malaria. The typical and most the used malaria diagnostic test is blood smear placed on a microscope slide, which is stained to confirm the parasites found inside the red blood cells.

The three main factors, which determine the mode of treatment, are the infecting Plasmodium parasite species, patient clinical situation for instance, adult, child and a pregnant female who suffers from mild or either severe malaria. The last one is the susceptibility of the drug in relation to the infecting parasites. The susceptibility of the drug is determined by the acquisition of the infection in a geographic area. Different regions in the world tend to have malaria types resistant to specific medications. A doctor who is familiar with malaria treatment protocols must prescribe the correct drugs for each type of malaria. People suffering from P. falciparum malaria might die mostly as a result of delayed treatment, which makes immediate treatment necessary (Rosenau, et al. United 2004). Treatment of malaria is not easy as Chloroquine phosphate being the alternative for every malarial parasites, apart from Chloroquine because of it's resistance to Plasmodium strains. Even though, majority of all P. malariae strains are vulnerable to Chloroquine, P. resistance is frequently noted by failure of drug-treatment in an individual patient. There are, nevertheless, numerous drug-treatment treatment protocols for Plasmodium strains, which is drug-resistant. There are other specialized labs, which test the resistance of parasites found in a patient, but this is not often done frequently. Therefore, treatment is mostly based on the bulk of Plasmodium species that have been diagnosed and the common drug-resistance pattern for a country or a region in the world where a patient becomes infested with Malaria. For instance, falciparum is mostly acquired in countries found in Middle East countries and is susceptible to Chloroquine. When Malaria is acquired in countries found in sub-Sahara African, it is often Chloroquine resistant.

The treatment policy, established recently in 2006 by World Health Organization remains treatment of uncomplicated cases of P. falciparum malaria with ACTs. They are drug combinations helpful in treating drug-resistant malaria types such as P. falciparum. Unfortunately, the year 2009, saw a number of individuals infected with of P. falciparum parasites become resistant to the ACT drugs. New drug for malaria treatments are currently under study as Plasmodium species have continued to produce strains considered resistant, which frequently tends to spread to many areas. A promising drug, which is under investigation, is spiroindolones, which seems effective in stopping infections associated with P. falciparum experimental. Individuals travelling to regions known for malaria have to know the medications they are required to take as prescribed for them to be effective. The present CDC recommendations, to prevent malaria show that people start taking ant malarial tablets a week to two before traveling to an area infested and for four weeks after leaving the region. Doctors and travel clinics need to advise individuals on the medicines they need to take to ensure they to get infected with malaria .Presently, there is no available vaccine for malaria as researchers are trying to come up with one.

Yellow fever

Yellow fever remains an acute viral disease, which is infectious transmitted to human beings after being bitten by infected mosquitoes. Even though, majority of yellow fever cases are mild, the disease can be life threatening and cause hemorrhagic fever. The viral disease is common in tropical areas in Africa as well as South America with yearly estimation of 200,000 yellow fever cases worldwide, resulting to around 30,000 deaths (Kreier, 2000). The increase of yellow fever cases in the past few decades has necessitated campaigns to improve public awareness on prevention of the disease and prevent re-emerging of the infectious disease. The infection is transmitted by mosquito and caused by a virus, which is a single-stranded RNA from Flavivirus genus. After the virus transmission, it often replicates in lymph nodes, subsequently spreading through the bloodstream (Rosenau, et al. United States, 2004). The widespread dissemination affects the kidneys, bone marrow, liver, spleen and lymph nodes and other organs. Liver tissue damage can result to jaundice and disruption of the body mechanism of blood clotting causing hemorrhagic complications associated with yellow fever.

The transmission of yellow fever to human beings is after being bitten by infected mosquitoes. different Aedes as well as Haemagogus mosquitoes species are vectors and responsible for human in addition to nonhuman primates transmission, which are considered the disease reservoirs. The disease is endemic in tropical as well as subtropical Africa regions and South America, even though an anticipated 90% of the reported cases take place in Africa. Many of the cases in the African continent are in unvaccinated persons living in sub-Saharan region. Even though there have been no reports on cases of yellow fever outbreaks in Asia, the area remains a hypothetical risk as the mosquitoes which are responsible for transmission of the disease and the susceptible primates, are all found there. The incubation period of yellow fever is mostly two to six days. Many people do not experience clinical symptoms after being infected with the virus, while others develop a mild, flu-like illness and other signs.

The symptoms are fever, chills, muscle aches, loss of appetite back pain, headache, and body weakness. The symptoms of yellow fever during the initial phase are nonspecific and the same as flu-like illness, the diagnosis during the initial stages is challenging. Therefore, preliminary diagnosis is frequently done based on the signs of the patient and related travel activities. Blood test abnormalities are present in persons infected with yellow fever, mostly those who develop the second deadly phase of the illness. The abnormalities might include a low cell count of white blood cells, thrombocytopenia, liver function tests elevation, abnormal extended blood clotting, and abnormal kidney function tests. Conversely, urine tests can prove urinary protein demonstrate elevated levels and urobilinogen. Laboratory yellow fever diagnosis necessitates specialized testing with blood tests demonstrating presence of antibodies, which are virus-specific (Hillmore, 2000). They are often produced to counter attack the infection by cross-reactivity together with antibodies associated with flaviviruses occurring at times necessitating extra testing.

Various specialized laboratory techniques as well as tests can be used in identification and confirmation of the virus presence using blood, tissue samples, and body fluids. There is no precise curative yellow fever treatment, as the treatment remains supportive with an aim of alleviating the disease symptoms such as fever and pain. Many patients who develop yellow fever symptoms experience a mild illness course, which resolve on its own after a few days. The supportive measures, which are implemented mostly… [END OF PREVIEW]

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