Dissertation: Disintegrating Relationships Between Organizational Leaders

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SAMPLE EXCERPT:

[. . .] (Krebs, 2008)

It is important to note that research shows that employees who are "included in key information flows and communities of knowledge are more dedicated and have a much higher rate of retention." (Krebs, 2008)

The work of Fu (2004) reports that the idea of social capital was developed by Bourdieu in the 1970s and 1980s and that social capital for Bourdieu "represented an aggregate of the actual or potential resources which are linked to possession of a durable network." (Fu, 2004) Bourdieu is reported to have emphasized the social capital "occurred via the development of durable relationships and networks of connections especially those among prestigious groups with considerable stocks of economic and cultural capital." (Fu, 2004) Research on social capital has emphasized individuals and "their roles and relationships with other individuals within a network as their primary unit of analysis of social capital." (Fu, 2004) Fu reports that the actions of individuals and groups are "greatly facilitated by membership in specific social networks, specifically by their direct and indirect links to other actors in those networks." (2004) Putman (2000) referred to social capital as "connections among individuals -- social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them." (Fu, 2004) Social capital was also held by Putman (2000) as "an essential element of the norms that arise from social networks." (Fu, 2004) According to Fu (2004) trust is "closely related to social capital." Social capital is defined by the individual's "direct relationships with others and by the other people and relationships reached through those to whom may be reached through direct relationships with others." (Fu, 2004) Different studies have proffered various definitions of trust however, the primary characteristics cited by researchers is "confidence in or reliance on some quality or attributes of a person or thing, or the truth of a statement." (Fu, 2004) Trust is based on the belief of the individual concerning "how another person will perform and behave on some future occasion" and as well is indicative of a willingness to be "vulnerable to another part either as a consequence of a belief in a partners' good intent, belief in their competence and capability, belief in their reliability, or belief in their potential openness." (Fu, 2004)

According to Swindall (2011), employees' ability to engage is affected by various factors including the type of relationships with organizational leaders (p. 212). While leaders can create performance goals, employees experience difficulties in meeting these goals if their relationship with leaders is disintegrating. Broner (2009), states that employees' perceptions of workplace fairness in light of leaders' attitudes towards subordinates have significant effects on employee retention (p.19). For instance, the fast food industry experience annual high turnover rates of employees because of poor relationships between leaders and workers. Smither & London (2009), state that disintegrating relationship between leaders and employees is demonstrated in interpersonal aggression toward employees. This kind of treatment is specifically strong when employees work for financial need instead of personal fulfillment purposes. The existing literature shows that & #8230;

Employee retention is affected by their perceptions of workplace fairness and justice, which are dependent on organizational leaders' behaviors.

While some employees are forced to stay and be committed to organizations because of lack of alternatives, high turnover rates are experienced in some industries because of disintegrating relationship between employees and leaders.

Disintegrating relationship between employees and leaders is demonstrated in aggression where organizational leaders take employees for granted.

When employees have poor relationships with their leaders, they stay and commit to the organization for financial gain rather than personal fulfillment reasons.

Research Design

The study will use grounded theory research design, which is research based on observations or data from various data sources. This design aligns with the research methodology since the data sources will provide information that will be subjected to analysis and review. The design is appropriate because the problem has gained minimal focus in the past though employees are ready to provide information that will address the issue. In addition, the phenomenon being evaluated is based on generation of theory rather than theory description or testing.

Source of Data

The types of data that will be collected in the study include relationship between leaders and employees, the link between leadership behavior and employees' perception, and employees' production and rewards. The data will be gathered from organizational leaders and employees as well as documents and materials that address the problem.

Data Collection and Procedures

Interviews are the most frequently used method to explore what leadership patterns exist in organizations. However, this study will use both interviews and observations as methods to collect data. The interview is undoubtedly the most common source of data collection in qualitative studies. For this study's approach, using person-to-person format is most prevalent for accuracy. Interviews could be formatted from the highly structured style, in which questions will be determined before the interviews, to the open-ended, and conversational format. Twelve (12 )organizations are targeted and will be selected across the states of New York, and the participants will include high ranking leaders such as Presidents, Vice-presidents, general managers, and departmental supervisors. For the employees, both interviews and observations will be used. For the most part, interviews are more open ended and less structured (Merriam, 2001) .In the process, the study will use the same tactic to ask the same questions of all the participants, but the order of the questions, the exact wording, and the type of follow-up questions may vary considerably for leaders and employees.

Since data collection in qualitative research is usually a time consuming process because of research methodology, the data will be collected from a group of 30 participants and evaluation of 7 different documents and materials on the subject. The study tend to use as data collection instruments the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) 45 item questionnaire with four dimensions (Transformational, Transactional, Laissez-Faire Leadership and Outcomes of Leadership, such as Effort, Effectiveness and Satisfaction) (see Bass, 1998.This instrument have been systematically developed and tested in relation to subordinates outcomes, has been scientifically studied tend to be appropriate for this study. This will be followed by making observations on the participants during direct interactions. The final step in the process will be analysis of current literature regarding the relationship between employees and leaders in organizations.

Data Analysis Procedures

This study will use simple Correlation to analyze the relationship between leaders and employees relationship, transformational leadership dimensions of organizational leaders. Based on the relationship of thematic analysis to phenomenology, this study will use a thematic analysis of data, where it will focus on recurring themes and patterns in the process. To be more specific, coding will play a critical role in the analysis process of the data collected from participants. In the process, Creswell's (2007) linear, hierarchical approach data coding will be used. Three steps will be used in the process: organizing and preparing data for analysis, critically reading through all data, and then coding the data. Emerging, recurring themes, and ideas will be grouped in different categories. That will show how various factors are interrelated and how they can lead to a successful relationship between leadership and employees within organizations. The procedures to be used to conduct the data analysis include constant comparative analysis and discourse analysis. The two procedures will be used in analyzing the first research question to compare the reasons provided by employees and examine the pattern or flow of communication respectively. The second and third research questions will be analyzed through constant comparative analysis to determine the similarities and differences in the risks organizations face because of disintegrated relationship.

Ethical Considerations

There are probable ethical issues that will emerge during the research including employees' concerns on confidentiality, potential legal actions against organizational leaders, and probable victimization of the employees or leaders. In attempts to address these ethical considerations, human subjects will be protected through seeking their informed consent from each of them as well as from the organization. The informed consent will be properly documented and interviews and observations conducted in environments that ensure confidentiality. The protection of human subjects and data will also be enhanced through seeking for Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP) approval. Site authorization will be achieved through seeking approval from the institution and organizations' top management and using contacts that can help remove barriers to entrance.

References:

Abrrow, H.A., Ardakani, M.S., Harooni, A. & Pour, H.M. (2013, July). The Relationship Between Organizational Trust and Organizational Justice Components and Their Role in Job Involvement in Education. International Journal of Management Academy, 1(1), 25-41.

Albrecht, S.L. (2010). Handbook of employee engagement: perspectives, issues, research and practice. Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Broner, S. (2009). Employees' perceptions of leaders' attitudes and employee retention: a quantitative study on perceived attitudes. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC.

Creswell, J.W.(2007). Qualitative inquiry & research design: Choosing among five approaches .(2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Goswami, J.H. (2013, March). Sustaining… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Disintegrating Relationships Between Organizational Leaders.  (2014, February 26).  Retrieved May 23, 2019, from https://www.essaytown.com/subjects/paper/disintegrating-relationships-organizational/5842060

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"Disintegrating Relationships Between Organizational Leaders."  Essaytown.com.  February 26, 2014.  Accessed May 23, 2019.
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