Research Proposal: Dissertation Chapter One Leadership Effectiveness

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[. . .] In leadership, cognitive intelligence competency requires leaders to develop and implement cognitive systems that transform how the business environment operates. Therefore, the study will review the difference of knowledge in the sample population and its application to decision-making and critical thinking processes. In turn, it will show the correlation between cognitive intelligence competency and leadership.

1.2 Background of the problem

Over the years, academic literature and practitioners have focused their efforts on developing information on social, cognitive, and emotional intelligence. However, these constructs have individually come with criticism regarding their practical application in the workplace.

1.2.1 The history of intelligence

Before analyzing the constructs of social, emotional and cognitive intelligence, it is first important to understand the different facets of intelligence. William Stern is credited for coming up with the term intelligence quotient (Goodey, 2016). Later, it was followed by a psychologist named Alfred Binet who assisted the French government by developing the first intelligence test to help identify school children in need of extra coaching services. Since then, various intelligence tests have been developed to influence the definition of the term intelligence. The last 100 years has also seen the development of different theories to explain intelligence.

1.2.2. Intelligence theories

Charles Spearman, a British psychologist (1863-1945) developed the general intelligence theory also known as the g factor. Through factor analysis, Spearman examined mental aptitude tests and deducted that individuals who scored well on test went to perform better in other tests. Similarly, those who had poor scores in one test went on to record similar scores in other tests. As such, Spearman concluded that intelligence is a cognitive ability which is measurable and can be expressed using mathematical figures. Louis Thurstne (1887-1955) had a different perspective on intelligence. He developed the primary mental abilities theory, which viewed intelligence as an aggregate of several constructs such as spatial visualization, verbal comprehension, associative memory, reasoning, word fluency, perceptual speed, and numerical ability.

Robert Sternberg developed the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. He postulated that intelligence is a broad topic that goes beyond a single ability and should be considered as individual talents that one possesses. As such, the theory proposes that intelligence is a mental activity geared towards purposive adaptation that shapes the real-world environment relevant to an individual’s life. Therefore, successful intelligence involves the following, practical intelligence, creative intelligence, and analytical intelligence. Practical intelligence refers an individual’s ability to change and adapt to a new environment. Creative intelligence involves the use of past and current skills to deal with situations that affect an individual in a new environment. Finally, analytical intelligence is an individual’s problem-solving skills.

Howard Gardener developed the theory of multiple intelligences. He believed that the use of test score results and by extension numerical expressions to measure the level of intelligence is not a full picture of people’s abilities (Goodey, 2016). His theory highlights that there are eight distinct bits of intelligence. They include visual-spatial, verbal-linguistic, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic intelligence.

Visual-spatial intelligence refers to the ability of an individual to the ability to visualize things such as charts, maps, pictures, and videos. Such people have the potential to recognize patterns with ease, completing puzzles, and enjoy painting, drawing, and visual arts. Linguistic-verbal intelligence refers to individuals who make good use of words both when speaking and in writing. Individuals with this intelligence are good at reading, writing, memorization, giving speeches, as well as debating (Goodey, 2016). Logical-mathematical intelligence refers to individuals who can solve problems, enjoy using abstract ideas, and use logic to solve patterns by using relevant relationships.

Body-kinesthetic intelligence is a physical intelligence exhibited by individuals who are good at physical control, performing actions and body movement. Such individuals have excellent dexterity and hand-eye coordination. Interpersonal intelligence refers to the ability an individual has to develop a good understanding of other people. Such individuals can assess the desires, emotions, intentions, and motivations of people around them (Goodey, 2016). Conversely, intrapersonal intelligence refers to a person’s ability to be aware of one’s motivations, emotional state, and feelings. The second is achieved through self-reflection and helps in the discovery of one’s strengths and weaknesses.

1.2.3 The conceptual framework of social, emotional, and cognitive intelligence and leadership outcomes.

Emotional intelligence, as compared to cognitive and social intelligence has received the highest number of academic literature as an individual construct. It is further explained using an ability and trait emotional intelligence models (Matthews, Zeidner, & Roberts, 2004). Salovey and Mayer’s ability model defines emotional intelligence as the ability of an individual to perceive, integrate, understand, and regulate emotion to promote personal growth. It later developed to include abilities that accurately perceive and generate emotions to promote both intellectual and emotional growth.

The ability model illustrates four types of abilities. The first one relates to perceiving emotions and being able to decipher faces, voices, pictures, and artifacts for emotions. Besides, it includes an individual’s ability to recognize one’s own emotions. In fact, it the basic aspect of processing emotional intelligence. The second aspect is using emotions. It works in coordination with cognitive intelligence as it involves using emotions to complete different cognitive processes such as problem-solving and critical thinking. Individuals with a high level of emotional intelligence can navigate mood swings and use the situation to fit the tasks.

The third ability involves understanding emotion language and using it to identify slight variations in emotions and being able to describe how emotions evolved. The fourth one is managing emotions. It is the ability to self-regulate emotions as well as those of others to achieve intended goals. The model has come under scrutiny for lacking validity at the workplace and its influence on leadership. However, the model has construct validity as the EI tests help to compare an individual performance to the standard production scale.

The trait model developed by Petrides illustrates the lower levels of personality. The model views emotional intelligence similar to one’s personality and one’s perception of his or her emotional abilities. Unlike the ability model, which uses scientifically resistant methods, the trait model uses self-perceived abilities and behavioral dispositions that are measured by a self-report. As such, the model is evaluated within a personality framework. The framework includes five factors and 15 facets. The factors include intrapersonal, interpersonal, stress management, adaptability, and general mood. Overall, it is a similar listing format applied in Goleman’s model in defining emotional intelligence.

However, Goleman’s model has been accused by De Raad (2005) for redundancy with the Big Five personality traits. The personality traits include extraversion, sociability, meticulousness, neuroticism, and honesty, which operate just like Goleman’s model. A comparison the ability and trait models show the application of different methodology with the former using performance-based tests whereas the latter used self-reports. Social intelligence can be classified as either cognitive, social intelligence or social, behavioral intelligence. Social cognitive intelligence is the ability to decode nonverbal and verbal intelligence whereas social, behavioral intelligence analyzes the effectiveness of social institutions. Leaders require having the ability to decipher nonverbal and verbal intelligence cues at the workplace.

1.2.4 Pros and cons of emotional, social, cognitive intelligence in leadership

There are several benefits associated with emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence. First and foremost, anyone can learn these forms of intelligence. These forms of intelligence are not exclusively natural talents or genetic traits. Therefore, any individual has the potential to develop into the forms of intelligence by putting them into practice later enhanced by the trait theory (Adams, 2013). The theory highlights that leaders are either born or develop qualities that enable them to excel in their roles. By focusing on the social, mental, and physical characteristics of an individual, the theory uses intelligence as one of the constructs used to measure leadership.

Emotional intelligence relies on individual interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence. These two forms enable an individual to understand one’s state of mind and that of others. Therefore, one’s social effectiveness improves by understanding other individuals at the core level (Adams, 2013). Emotional intelligence also increases the perception levels that people have which in turn promotes closeness in social situations. It exhibited through transformational leadership whereby the leader interacts with followers with the aim of creating trust and increase motivation for the members at the workplace.

Having high levels of social, emotional and cognitive intelligence makes decision-making faster. An individual with a high level of cognitive intelligence can come up with solutions to problems faster unlike those with a lower level. Similarly, emotional and social decisions require an individual with high intelligence (Boyatzis & Goleman, 2007). As such, high levels of these three constructs makes it easier for a person in leadership to evaluate the emotional and social settings of followers and come up with real-time decisions.

Emotional, social, and cognitive intelligence when used together give an individual the ability to multitask on several issues at once and gives an individual the ability to fit into any… [END OF PREVIEW]

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Dissertation Chapter One Leadership Effectiveness.  (2017, August 21).  Retrieved November 22, 2019, from

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"Dissertation Chapter One Leadership Effectiveness."  21 August 2017.  Web.  22 November 2019. <>.

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"Dissertation Chapter One Leadership Effectiveness."  August 21, 2017.  Accessed November 22, 2019.